What are the principles that facilitate effective learning in adult education according to Lieb?………..
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: ADULT EDUCATION
Lieb, P. (1991). “Principles of Adult Learning: Adults as learners.” Arizona Department of Health Services. Retrieved on October 5th 2011 from http://www2.honolulu.hawaii.edu/facdev/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm
Lieb explains to adult instructors the principles that facilitate effective learning in adult education. The underlying idea in the article is that understanding the ways in which adults learn best makes effective instructors. The article acknowledges that adult learners have special needs compared to teens and children and the fact that adult learning is a relatively new area of study.
The article then outlines the characteristics that are common among adult learners. It indicates the fact that adults are self-directed and autonomous learners with accumulated knowledge and life experience related to family responsibilities and work and their instructors should therefore get their advanced perspective in the various areas they learn about. It also underscores the fact that adults are mostly goal oriented and like to focus on relevant matters and that instructors should clearly explain to the learners the reasons as to why they must learn a specific thing. It also demonstrates that adults are practical in the way they learn and must be treated with due respect.
Lieb looks into factors that would motivate an adult learner from the perspective of social relationships, external expectations, social welfare, personal advancement, stimulation and cognitive interest. The article also examines barriers to effective learning. Finally, Lieb gives learning tips for effective instructors in which he extensively explains about motivation, reinforcement, transference and retention.
Narasaki, K. K. (2007). Adult literacy education in immigrant communities: identifying policy and program priorities for helping newcomers learn English. Asian American justice centre
Narasaki explores a number of factors economic, demographic and social which have in the recent past converged and consequently lead to increased interest in improving programs for English and other languages. He explains the system as having reached a critical stage in development with innovative approaches and strategic investments leading to transformative changes.
Narasaki further explains the partnership that saw the Asian American Justice Center together with the National council of La Raza and National Immigration Forum that congregated experts and practitioners from adult literacy, immigration, labor, education, government and faith based organizations to discuss opportunities and challenges facing adult education initiatives. He expeditiously analyzes the report providing background information and identifying promising practices in the program while analytically highlighting policy priorities that would increase access to high quality adult English learning courses.
The article also examines the growing needs for adult learning and the challenges experienced in meeting the needs. It identifies four important factors that have contributed to the shortage of the learning programs as increased immigration of people who cannot speak in English from countries which speak languages other than English, increased population of individuals born in the United States with limited literary and English skills, increased United States’ immigrant population dispersion that has faced challenges in getting integrated into the communities. Finally, the states’ misunderstanding and lack of familiarity with the immigrant communities and the lack of availability of the adult English learning programs has also contributed to the shortage of the learning programs. The article analyses issues affecting adult education from a neutral perspective.
Askov, E. N. and Johnstone, J. (2003). Challenges of Using the Web in Adult Education: Literacy Link in the Classroom. National Centre for the Study of Adult learning and literacy.
The article examines the assumption that using the internet in adult education is of value in assisting the student learn the intended course content and develop internet and computer skills. The article faults the approach from the perspective that the field of adult learning is still not ready to make good use of online programs. It explains that the field of adult learning has already been facing high turnover of teachers and learners coupled with limited professional development, inadequate resources, inconsistent student attendance and diverse needs of the leaner. It therefore brings all these in perspective and shows that technology cannot positively fit into the program. The article then advises that attempts to use internet based learning activities in the adult education learning environment should be approached from a thoughtful and sustainable way.
The writers examine the Literacy Link program developed jointly by the University of Pennsylvania’s National Centre on Adult Literacy, the Public Broadcasting System and the Kentucky Education Television to come up with two innovative programs on online adult education and factors that hindered the success to the products when they were introduced to be used by the adult learners.
Comings, J. P. and Reder, S. (2009). “Visions and Goals for Access to Adult Education for Deaf People.” World Federation of the Deaf. Retrieved on October 5th 2011 from http://www.wfdeaf.org/databank/policies/policy-visions-and-goals-for-access-to-adult-education-for-deaf-people
The article gives a general overview of the state of adult education offered to deaf people allover the world. It gives statistics about the deaf people in the world and explains their uniqueness of deafness as a disability that sets itself apart from other disabilities. It particularly addresses the importance of teachers and peers of the deaf people to learn sign language to avoid them feeling segregated since they cannot interact and learn like other disabled people who can hear and speak. The article then examines the roles played by the World Federation for the Deaf in the formulation of policies that affect the deaf and its efforts in adult learning programs for the deaf.
The article addresses the Salamanca statement on special education needs that was delivered at a conference sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1994 and its implications on the rights of deaf people undergoing adult education. The article further examines the UNESCO and Hamburg statement on adult education rights of 1997 that resulted in the declaration that in addition to expanding knowledge, adult education also promotes active citizenship, human rights and effective democracy in every country. It also affirmed the fact that adult education is more than a right since it is the key to the twenty first century. Finally, the article examines the principles for access to adult education as set out by the World Federation for the deaf and gives a brief summary of the importance of involving deaf people in adult education programs.
Briefing Sheet (2008). Sources of funding for adult learners. National Institute for Adult Continuing Education, sheet no. 83
The briefing sheet explains the confusion encountered by adult learners in a bid to access funding for their education. The briefing sheet goes ahead to outline the possible sources from which adult learners can obtain funding including loans, bursaries, grants and other sources of financial assistance. The sheet provides the state of adult education in England and gives the learners the way to go in obtaining funding and any necessary information that may be needed by the learners. The sheet explains about career development loans, funding for further education courses, funding for adult education courses, other possible sources of funding and useful contacts for people seeking for education funding in England.
In the sources of funding for adult education, the sheet explains that local authorities sometime offer concessions to people undertaking courses in adult education and that at the residential colleges, students attending fulltime residential courses in the long-term adult residential colleges have access to grants and bursaries. The paper also explains the fees covered by the bursaries which include travel costs, tuition fees, living expenses and other allowances. It explains that learners who qualify for the bursaries ought to be twenty years and above and that bursaries covering living expenses are means-tested.
The paper further examines other sources of funding for adult education by outlining them in much detail. The funding examined include educational grants and charitable trusts, city and guilds bursaries, funding by employers, funding by trade unions and how unemployed ex-service people may obtain funding through the legion grant scheme and through government sources.
U.S. Department of Education (2008). Bridges to Opportunity: Federal Adult Education Programs for the twenty first century. Report to the President on Executive Order 13445
The report explains that in the fiscal year 2007, the federal government invested more than $5.7 billion in various programs that supported adult education in the United States. It also explains that the president signed executive order 13445 and therefore committed the government to a thorough review of efficiency, effectiveness and availability of education programs for adult education. It also explains that the order strengthened adult education. In this view, the report explains how the president ordered that an Interagency Adult Education Working group be established with the aim of identifying and subsequently reviewing the federal programs that focus on improving the basic skills of adults and help them in advancing to postsecondary education, employment and training.
The working group had to identify federal programs that specifically focused on improving the basic educational skills of adults, transitioning adult learners from basic literacy to postsecondary training, education or employment and generally constitute adult education. The report presents and analyses eleven programs that were designed to promote adult literacy through basic education, secondary education and the learning of English as a second language. The report also explains how five federal agencies administer the said adult education programs. Each of the five agencies funds adult education programs as per the statutory requirements. The agencies include the U.S Department of Defense that facilitates the National Guard Youth Challenge Program, the Department of Education that facilitates adult education and family literacy, the department of health and human services that facilitates the John Hopkins Chaffee foster care Independence program, the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Prisons which facilitates vocational training programs and the Department of Labor that facilitate adult, youth and dislocated worker programs.
Susan, I. (1991). “Ethical Practice in Adult Education.” ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved on October 5th 2011 from http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-5/adult.htm
The article explains that adult education, unlike other fields, does not have a history of considering ethics and its relationship to practice. It gives the reason that it is because problems related to practice are normally solved by the educators and discussions on issues relating to ethics are normally impeded by the diversity of the field and the fact that it focuses more on the learner than the practices. However the article acknowledges the importance of ethics in adult education practices and goes on to emphasize how it would help in the complete understanding of the practices.
The article goes on to describe in details the ethical dimensions of the practices in adult education and examines some of the ethical dilemmas inherent in adult education practices as well as providing useful ideas that would be of help in decision making when dealing with issues that are normally faced by adult educators. The digest finalizes with suggestions that promote ethical practice in adult education.
“Funding for Adult and Family Literacy.” (September 2006). National Coalition for Literacy. Retrieved on October 5th 2011 from http://www.zhost.com/ncl2011/advocacy/act_funding.html
The web article explains that the both the federal and the state governments provide funding for all types of education programs in the country. It therefore analyzes how the federal, state and local governments fund adult literacy and education programs in the United States. It gives a breakdown of how adult literacy and education is funded. In addition, it offers statistics of the institutions and the number of adult learners funded throughout the United States.
However, the article reveals that only a small percentage of the population who could benefit from the funding are actually benefiting. It also reveals that people are mainly put on waiting lists of sometimes more than one year which they find quite inappropriate. The article goes further to explain the real issues that affect the adult literacy and education programs and enumerates the benefits that would accrue for the nation in case it increased funding for the program.
Finally, the article emphasizes on the need to raise awareness about the issues of adult education nationwide in order to increase access and make it an integral part of solutions offered to address national priorities. It also informs the reader on how to take part in support of adult education.
Zemke, R. S. (March 1984). “Thirty things we know for sure about adult learning.” Innovation Abstracts Vol. VI, No 8 Retrieved on October 5th 2011 from http://www2.honolulu.hawaii.edu/facdev/guidebk/teachtip/adults-3.htm
The article generally considers three basic divisions of the knowledge about adult learning. The first division examines six factors that would motivate an adult to learn. It considers reasons why an adult would want to learn and build the motivations upon the identified reasons. The reason may include the desire to cope with specific life changing events, the search for better ways to cope with general life challenges, the need to use the skill or knowledge being sought among others.
The second division focuses on curriculum design that should focus more on practical aspects of the learning program. It examines fourteen aspects that the curriculum should have in order to completely meet the educational needs of the adult learner. Finally, the article examines ten aspects that would make the classrooms used by adult learners comfortable and appropriate for learning. Generally, it emphasizes on the need to recognize the fact that adults want a problem-oriented learning experience that is highly personalized and that meets their need for personal responsibility and self direction.
Sherman, R. and Tibbetts, J. (1999). Instructor competencies and performance indicators for the improvement of adult education programs. Building Professional and Development partnerships for adult Educators (PRO-NET) Project
The publication focuses on the Building Professional Development Partnerships in Adult Education (PRO-NET) project that engaged in a multi-year process of developing performance indicators and competencies for instructors in the adult education program. The publication examines the importance of instructor competencies, how the competencies were developed in the PRO-NET project, the organization of the competencies in regard to their themes and the suitable persons to use the specified competencies.
The publication goes further to examine how the competencies can be used by various stakeholders in improving the instructions given to adult learners and then examines how the programs can be used to promote the use of the competencies developed. It also looks into the organization of the competence document and then examines instructor competencies and performance indicators. It then proceeds to look into the overarching characteristics of effective adult instruction and analyzes the instructor competencies under various categories.
Finally, the publication examines the ways of managing instructional resources such as time, space, people and material and gives detailed analysis of the various instructor competencies in a table format.
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