> Submit a narrative dealing with the role of government,technology, > entreprenurship and consumerism ……….
The role of entrepreneurship in the empowerment of minority groups and women is highlighted in the story of McDonald’s Corporation. The corporation which was built on an entrepreneurial spirit works towards the empowerment minority groups and women by breaking from its original policy of not hiring women to work at its restaurants. The corporation had 41 percent of its employees constituting women and minority in 2009 (161). Entrepreneurship is also highlighted as having been evident in women and minorities as they ventured in industries catering for specialized markets such as women producing and selling to other women and minority groups producing and selling to their own kind. In the housing boom that came after the Second World War, women ventured into residential real estate and comprised 44 percent of the real estate brokers by 1977 (163).
The role of entrepreneurship is also highlighted in the building of thriving enterprises by women entrepreneurs some of who became known among the greatest American entrepreneurs. Estee lauder, for instance, mixed skin creams and sold them through elite departmental stores which saw her own nearly 50 percent shares of cosmetics markets in departmental stores throughout the United States (164). In 1982, businesses owned by women entrepreneurs comprised a quarter of all companies in the United States (165).
The role of consumerism is exemplified in the fact that the power of women as consumers has steadily grown since 1920 to a level that they currently make more than 70 percent of retail purchases (161). Consumerism is highlighted in the success of Madame Celeste J. Walker who created great consumer value in her business in hair-care and hot-comb that enabled her acquire a mansion in New York City overlooking the Hudson River. Estee Lauder also created items of consumer value by mixing skin creams and selling them at a beauty parlor (164). Consumerism is particularly observed in the success of the business as consumers used her products to satisfy their needs. In 1970, black consumers from the middle economic class no longer spent their money in the black owned enterprises but became integrated into the mainstream white-dominated American business (171).
The role of technology is featured in the increase of women in the nation’s clerical workforce between 1870 and 1920 due to the invention of the telephone and the modern-keyboard typewriter. This saw the growth of women stenographers, typists and bookkeepers to more than 90 percent by the year 1920 (162). In the semiconductor industry, a great driver of technology, only 3 percent of the nonprofits were headed by women in 1986 (168). A technology based company, Hewlett-Packard, was headed by a woman from 2000 to 2005. She oversaw the company’s acquisition of Compaq, a personal computer manufacturer and the laying off of 36000 employees at the company (169). Black Entertainment Television which was the first cable television system to be owned by a black person was offering 24-hour programming through 2200 cable systems to 27 million households (173). In 2004, a company founded and located in the Silicon Valley, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) had a Hispanic as its chairman and CEO. He led the initiative to bring affordable internet services to half the world’s population an initiative that made him named the CEO of the year (181).
The government through the change of the federal law enabled women and minorities to attain considerable progression in prestigious professions. This was mainly through the women’s Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the 1964’s Civil Rights Act championed by African Americans. The government through the legislations put an end to job discrimination based on color, race, national origin, sex and religion. In 1972, the government through congress played the role of amending the Equal Pay Act enacted in 1963 through removal of exemptions that were affecting executive positions. The government also passed the legislation that benefitted minorities and women in seeking equal employment opportunities (164). The government through Small Business Administration programs specified a percentage of government contracts which were to be awarded to companies owned by minorities (173)
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