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SPSS REQUIRED: the role of exercise in pain perception
Write up an experimental study, which is the role of execise in pain perception.
This is what my previous students (as the experimenters) received as their instructions. This should provide you enough information for you to write most of your method section (please remember that you write your report as a researcher/experimenter who conducted the whole experiment). You also need to check the results document for your participant section (which I will post later). Please remember that you are NOT allowed to cut and paste any of these. You need to learn what information should go under which section of your methods and paraphrase the information. If you are not familiar with an APA experimental report, please remember that it has a certain format. It is YOUR job to find out how to write an APA experimental report (e.g., what headings you need and what info should go under which section). I cannot emphasise enough how important it is for you to learn how to write an APA style experimental report now.
PSY208 Pain Experiment
This is the experiment, which aims to investigate the effect of exercise on pain perception. Please read the following section to conduct the experiment as the experimenter.
Your participants are volunteers from your tutorial group, who will be requested to do 10 mins exercise as well as cold pressor tests (i.e., CPT, see below for the test). You will have to conduct CPT for each participant before exercise and 5 mins after the exercise in order to measure your participant’s pain threshold (i.e., latency to start feeling pain) and pain tolerance (i.e., latency to pull out the limb from the water).
I will place two bowls of ice water, two thermometers and stopwatches in the field opposite building C6 (next to the tennis court). Please join me there 10 mins prior to your tutorial time. Prior to the tutorial, you need to read the following process and remember to distribute the jobs to each of you wisely.
The process of the experiment
1.Provide all participants with instructions (see below) while another person has to
set the temperature of the ice water to 1.5 and keep it within (+- 0.5 ) during the
experiment. This water will have to be manually stirred in order to keep the
temperature consistent every 30 second.
2.Start the experiment by measuring (& recording) each participant’s pain threshold
and pain tolerance. Ask your participant to immerse his/her left hand into the cold water and hold it as long as possible. Then, ask him/her to inform you when he/she starts feeling pain. You need to do this individually. Three minutes will be the maximum immersion duration but remember NOT to tell your participant about the three minutes. Remember that your participants are not allowed to use their watch during the experiment.You should have 5 mins intervals between each participant.
3.After the first test, you will have to ask your participant to run at their own pace for 10 mins (You will have to time the duration of the exercise for each participant.).
4. Time 5 mins interval between the exercise and post exercise CPT for each participant.
1.Checking and recording times (2 persons)
2.Timing every 30sec and stir the water (2 persons)
3.Checking water temp (2 persons)
4.Timing each participant running for 10 mins
5.Timing each participant resting for 5 mins
Instructions to your participants
First, we are going to ask you to place your left hand into the cold water. We are interested in how long it will take you to start feeling that this is aversive but tolerable, and how long
you can keep your hand in the water before it becomes too aversive to tolerate. You should withdraw your hand immediately at this point. Then, you will be asked to run for 10 mins at your own pace. One of us will be timing and will inform you when the time is up. When it happens, we would like you to come back here to have 5 mins rest before we ask you to repeat the first test with the cold water. Please remember to inform us when you start feeling that it is too aversive to leave your hand in the water and that you have to withdraw your hand.
FIRST ASSIGNMENT- LITERATURE REVIEW: THE ROLE OF PAIN PERCEPTION.
Several studies have been conducted to determine the level of pain in individuals after engaging in exercise. In particular, researchers have investigated whether decreased sensitivity to pain occurs after undertaking aerobic exercise, for instance, resistance or isometric exercise. Research has found that reduced perception of pain occurred during and after exercise under experimental and clinical conditions (Smith, 2004). Although other researches contest these claims and the results of these studies stating that the hypoalgesia felt in these cases is not a response to the aerobic exercise. Yet again, other studies show mixed results in which case exercise is seen in some respects as a factor that induces hypoalgesia while in others, it is not a significant factor. The following sections of this paper will evaluate the various findings of researchers who have taken time to evaluate the role and effect of exercise on the perception of pain.
Research has also found aerobic exercise not only reduces sensitivity to pain but that exercise has other benefits. Many of researchers have suggested that aerobic exercise can help in mood improvement. Others have noted that aerobic the benefits of such exercises in reducing pain. Hoffman and Hoffman (2007) note that regular exercise training has positive effects when applied to patients suffering from depression, chronic pain conditions, as well as some psychiatric conditions.
Smith (2004) stated that stress instigated analgesia commonly observed in completing athletes resulted in the reduction of pain. Smith found that athletes respond to noxious stimuli when subjected to competition stress. The study examined the nature of stress in regards to interpersonal competition, as well as examining which elements of physical exertion, psychological stress, or athletic competition triggered endogenous pain inhibition. The study revealed that stress instigated analgesia resulted from strenuous exercise among athletes and non-athletes (Smith, 2004).
Nichols and Glenn (1994) reseached the impact of aerobic exercise on psychological, disability, and pain symptoms among persons with fibromyagia. Theyexamined 19 individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia in relation to aerobic exercises over a period of eight weeks. Each individual was asked to complete pre-tests and post-tests of BSI (Brief Symptom Inventory), MPQ (McGill Pain Questionnaire), and SIP (Sickness Impact Profile). Exercise was found to be beneficial in respect of pain and lower psychological ratings but insignificant for higher physical disability ratings. Overall they found no evidence to suggest significant positive effects, pain perception response to aerobic exercise has been studied using various methodologies fibromyalgia from exercise. Research experiment the intensity and duration of exercise, timing of pain experiments and pain perception measures. Kotlyn (2002) researched cyclists cycling at 75% VO2max (maximal oxygen consumption) for 30 minutes. There is an alteration in pain perception to several noxious stimuli after an experiment involving aerobic exercise despite the differences in the way the experiment was carried out. According to Koltyn (2002), decreased sensitivity to pain occurs after high intensity exercise.
Drury, Greenwood, Stuempfle and Koltyn (2005) concluded that exercise results in the alteration of pain sensitivity during and after high intensity exercise. Using healthy females only, the researchers studied changes in the perception of pain during and after exercise. Participants underwent pain assessment before and after an exhaustive VO2 high intensitycycling competition. For each participant, the following data was collected: Oxygen uptake, heart rate, pain tolerance, and pain threshold. The data was collected at baseline, during exercise, at exhaustive intensity, and ten minutes after recovery. The researchers concluded that a reduction in pain perception occurs in women during and after exercise. This trend was most effectively felt when exhaustive exercise is done according to Drury et al. (2005), and supported Koltyn (2002) conclusion suggesting that exercise assisted regardless of gender.
Whilst the above studies suggest positive outcomes for exercise in relation to above-mentioned factors, other research has failed to find positive relationships. According to Padawer and Levine (1992), exercise-derived hypoalgesia is a result of repeated pain testing but not a response to the effect of aerobic exercise. In the aerobic exercise experiments, most researchers tested pain before and after exercise. However, they did not include a control group or control condition to determine the effects of the pain testing exercise.
The conflicting conclusions from the above studies may be as a result of the choice of pain stimulus. Padawer and Levine did their study using a cold presser test while Koltyn et al. carried out the experiments using a pressure pain stimulus.
The role of exercise in mood improvement is almost certain going by the many studies that have given positive results. While this is the case, a lot of debate has erupted recently regarding the impact of exercise on the feeling of pain. Several studies have been conducted to establish the effects of exercise on pain perception. Researchers have greatly contested and debated various research findings in this respect with some arguing that the methods applied during the studies affect the results obtained. While the majority of researchers admit that exercise, especially high intensity aerobic exercise, plays a significant role in reducing pain, some believe that this is far from the case. It is evident that these studies based their conclusions and results on individuals with pain only. The latter group recommends that studies focusing on the relationship between pain and exercise should also be carried in pain free individuals. Some quarters further recommend that individuals undergoing various chronic pain conditions also need to be involved in the process; this is the only way representative samples can be obtained. This is so considering that avoiding bias should be the top priority in any study.
Drury D., Greenwood K., Stuempfle K., Koltyn K. (2005). Changes in pain perception in women during and following an exhaustive incremental cycling exercise. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 4(2005):215-222. Retrieved from http://www.jssm.org/vol4/n3/1/v4n3-1pdf.pdf
Hoffman, M. &Hoffman, D. (2007). Does aerobic exercise improve pain perception and mood? A review of the evidence related to healthy and chronic pain subjects.Current Pain Headache Reports,11(2):93-7.
Koltyn, K. (2002). Exercise- Induced Hypoalgesia and Intensity Exercise. Sports Medicine, 32(8), 477-487.
Nichols, D. &Glenn, T. (1994).Effects of aerobic exercise on pain perception, affect, and level of disability in individuals with fibromyalgia.Physical Therapy, 74(4):327-32.
Paalasmaa P. & Kemppainen P. & Pertovaara A. (1991), Modulation of Skin Sensitivity by Dynamic and Isometric Exercise In Man. European Journal of Applied Physiology 1991(62): 279-85.
Padawe, W. & Levine, F. (1992). Exercise induced analgesia: fact or artifact? Pain, 48: 131-135.
Smith D. (2004) The effects of competition and exercise on pain perception. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10066/737
Research Information sheet Project title: The role of exercise in pain perception
What is this about?:
You are invited to participate in the experiment which investigates the relationship between exercise and pain perception. This is your tutorial exercise in Week 2. It will involve a 10 minute run at your own pace and immersing your left hand in cold water prior and post run. However, even though the title says exercise and pain perception, it will only involve some discomfort or mild pain, but not serious painful sensations. The results of this experiment will be used by you to write up your experimental report as your second assignment later this semester. Who will be invited to participate as a participant in this study? Anyone who is enrolled in PSY 208 this semester (201230) and is interested in participating is invited. However, as this involves a 10 min run at your own pace, you should consider participation only if you are comfortable and confident to do so. Do you have a choice? Participation in this experiment is completely voluntary. As mentioned, if you are neither interested in participating as a participant or comfortable/confident with a 10 min run, you are free not to participate as a participant. If you decide not to participate, you are requested to participate in the tutorial as a student experimenter.
Also, please remember that if you wish to withdraw from the experiment once it has started, you are free to do so at any time without providing a reason to us. However, it won’t be possible to withdraw your data from this study after the tutorial as there will be no identifiable information recoded to identify your data. If you decide to participate as a participant:
Before the tutorial,
Please meet us in the field opposite building C6 (if it rains, meet us in the gym). You will need to be dressed suitably for jogging. Drinking water will be provided. Please bring the consent form with your signature. After the experiment:
The data will be entered into the spreadsheet and used for your second assignment. However, there will be no identifying information collected for the experiment.
If you have any concerns about the study, or your right as a participant:
you are more than welcome to contact me.
Thank you for taking the time to consider this study. If you wish to take part in it, please read and sing the consent form Thank you.
RESEARCH CONSENT FORM
School of Psychology
I,__________________________________, hereby consent to participation in the research, “The role of exercise in pain perception”.
I understand that I am free to withdraw from participation in the research at any time during the experiment and that doing so will not result in any penalty or discrimination. I understand that my personal details will remain confidential and that neither my name nor any other identifying information will be collected, used or published. Therefore, I understand that it is not possible to withdraw from participation once the experiment is finished.
The purpose of the current research has been explained to me, including any potential discomfort, and I have read and understood the information sheet given to me. I have had the opportunity to ask questions about the research and I am satisfied with the answers.
This study has been approved by the School of Psychology Ethics Committee,. I understand that if I have any complaints or concerns about this research I can contact: