1. What is the difference between network architecture and application architecture?
2. Consider an e-commerce site that wants to keep a purchase record for each of its customers. Describe how this can be done with cookies?
3. Consider a new peer Alice that joins a BitTorrent without processing any chunks. Without any chunks, she cannot become a top-four uploader for any of the other peers, since she has nothing to upload. How then will Alice get her first chunk?
4. Obtain the HTTP/1.1 specification (RFC2616) from the web and answer the following questions.
a. Explain the mechanism used for signaling between the client and server to indicate that a persistent connection is being closed. Can the client, the server, or both signal the close of a connection?
b. What encryption services are provided by HTTP?
c. Can a client open three or more simultaneous connections with a given client?
d. Either a server or a client may close a transport connection between them if either one detects the connection has been idle for some time. Is it possible that one side starts closing a connection while the other side is transmitting data via this connection? Explain.
5. Consider distributing a file of F = 15 Gbits to N peers. The server has an upload rate of us= 30 Mbps, and each peer has a download rate of di = 2 Mbps and an upload rate of u. For N = 10, 100, and 1,000 and u = 300 Kbps, 700 Kbps, and 2 Mbps, prepare a chart giving the minimum distribution time for each of the combinations of N and u for both client-server distribution and P2P distribution.
6. How long does it take a packet of length 1,000 bytes to propagate over a link of distance 2,500 km, propagation speed 2.5 • 108 m/s, and transmission rate 2 Mbps? More generally, how long does it take a packet of length L to propagate over a link of distance d, propagation speed s, and transmission rate R bps? Does this delay depend on packet length? Does this delay depend on transmission rate?
7. List five tasks that a layer can perform. Is it possible that one (or more) of these tasks could be performed by two (or more) layers?
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