attached: the class slides and notes, some other papers that can help.
In a three-page team paper find one example (minimum) of each:
A. Public relations,
B. marketing, and
Then, provide a brief analysis of each – with references to our class notes, readings or research conducted on your own – that would indicate how they differ and/or are alike.
In writing your paper:
– Must make reference to your selected articles/materials. Use APA style for your in-text citation as well as your Works Cited page.
– Incorporate a minimum of two sources.
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Hard News Vs. Soft News
News stories are basically divided into two types: hard news and soft news. Hard new generally refers to up-to-the-minute news and events that are reported immediately, while soft news is background information or human-interest stories.
Politics, war, economics and crime used to be considered hard news, while arts, entertainment and lifestyles were considered soft news.
But increasingly, the lines are beginning to blur. Is a story about the private life of a politician “politics” or “entertainment”? Is an article about the importance of investing early for retirement a “business” story or a “lifestyle” story? Judging solely on subject matter, it can be difficult to tell.
One difference between hard and soft news is the tone of presentation. A hard news story takes a factual approach: What happened? Who was involved? Where and when did it happen? Why?
A soft news story tries instead to entertain or advise the reader. You may have come across newspaper or TV stories that promise “news you can use.” Examples might be tips on how to stretch properly before exercising, or what to look for when buying a new computer.
Knowing the difference between hard and soft news helps you develop a sense of how news is covered, and what sorts of stories different news media tend to publish or broadcast. This can be important when you want to write articles or influence the media yourself.
Source Media Awareness Network
This is the term journalists use to refer to “news of the day.” Hard news is a chronicle of currentevents/incidents and is the most common news style on the front page of your
Hard news gives readers the information they need. If the federal government announces a new youth initiative, it’s hard news the next day. Examples of hard news stories include reports on crime, court cases, government announcements, house fires, awards ceremonies, plane crashes, international events, etc.
Hard news reporting uses clean and uncluttered writing. It may start with a summary lead that describes what happened, where, when, to/by whom, and why (the journalist’s 5 W’s). The lead must be brief and simple, and the purpose of the rest of the story is to elaborate on it.
This is a term for news that is not necessarily time-sensitive. Soft news includes profiles of people, programs, or organizations. Feature stories take a step back from the headlines to explore an issue in depth. Written in the soft news style, they are an effective way to write about complex issues too large for the terse style of a hard news item. A good feature might be about the people in your community and their struggles, victories and defeats, or maybe about a trip someone took to Africa as a part of a school project.
A feature usually focuses on a certain angle, explores it through background research and
interviews with the people involved, and then draws conclusions from that information.
For an example, look at street kids. A hard news story must clinically report the relevant statistics: how many there are, where they are, and what they’re doing. It usually relies on a time- sensitive hook – for example, the release of a new study, a demonstration by street youth or the untimely death of a young person on the streets.
A feature on street youth is not limited in such a manner. It might be written over a longer periodof time, and allows the unique and detailed stories of street kids’ individual lives to be expressed.
An editorial expresses an opinion. All editorials are from a personal point of view, but the topics must still be relevant to the reader. Editorials are strengthened when the arguments in them are supported with facts and evidence.
Hard News Story
14 Dec 1999; by Lori Kurtzman, UWEC Junior
20 Apr 2003 — updated by Jerz
Hard news articles are written so the the reader can stop reading at any time, and still come away with the whole story. This is very different from an essay, which presumes that the audience will stick around to the end, and can therefore build to a finish. There is no need to put a “conclusion” on a news story. Each individual reader will “end” the story whenever he or she gets bored. A particularly interested reader will keep reading to the end.
The Lead: The lead, or the first sentence of the story, is arguably the most important part of the article. Based on the content of that first sentence, a reader will either look deeper into the story, or move on to the next one.
Therefore, how you craft your lead is very important. There are some basic rules one can follow:
A 15-minute operation involving a forklift, 20 firefighters, seven police officers and one scared pig ended a two-hour traffic delay on Interstate 94 Sunday morning.
Direct Quotes: Quotes breathe life into a story, but can be abused. Don’t quote material that isn’t quoteworthy. For instance, if Frank had said, “Officers arrived on the scene at about 9:00 a.m.,” you wouldn’t quote that.
If she had said, “That huge pig just sat there with tears running down his face and I thought my heart would burst,” well, that’s far more quoteworthy.
Here is where you could use what Frank had said and rewrite it: Officers arrived on the scene around 9:00 a.m., Frank said. No quotes needed, but the information still needs to be attributed to Frank– she’s the one who said it.
In a straight news story, it’s best to get the most important information in your story up to the top– your reader will often stop reading after the first few paragraphs, so its important that they have a good grasp of the story. Put the least important stuff at the end, and leave the unimportant stuff out altogether.
Length of Paragraphs
This is different than a term paper for English class. Keep your paragraphs short (one or two sentences) and make each of your points concise. Readers grow tired of big blocks of text, so it’s best to break it up a bit.
Objectivity vs. Opinion
Your readers aren’t interested your opinion on the latest Clinton scandal –so keep yourself out of the story. Attribute every claim or opinion you report to someone else, and don’t editorialize. If you do, you take the entire element of objectivity– and thus, truth– out of your story.
Keep out of your story.
Covering Hard NewsIntroduction to Journalismhttp://collegejournalism.wordpress.com/
THE HARD NEWS (Story & Release)
• A news story is a timely story about an issue, event, person or topic that many people are interested in.
• A news story is designed to inform the reader of something in a crisp, concise, easily-read manner.
• Each paragraph should develop a single thought and one-sentence paragraphs should often be used. (One idea = One graph)
• Generally, keep sentences short, but vary their lengths..
• Check and re-check your facts.
• Always use both a person’s first and second names in the first reference and be absolutely sure of the spelling.
• Where possible, try to use quotes and be sure they are near the top of the story.
• Never use “I” or “we” or…in a hard news story. Those words belong in columns.
Be fair and accurate and don’t let your own views creep into the story. (Keep Out!)
Only columnists and editorials writers are supposed to give opinions.
• Avoid the trap of starting almost every sentence with “The”.
• The bottom line is – Avoid clichés like the plague. (Think about that for a moment!)
• Don’t start writing until you’re sure you understand the situation. (Satisfy Qs and Os)
• Don’t use big words when shorter words will do just as well. (Cousin Andrew)
WRITING A HARD NEWS STORY
What are some of the things you have to know in order to successfully write a hard news story? Here are some helpful suggestions:
The Inverted Pyramid
The vast majority of hard news stories are written in the inverted pyramid style.
Explanatory passages and the less important facts are added in declining order of importance. There are two reasons for this.
Sometimes stories have to be cut, often just before deadline, to fit the available space and this style of hard news writing ensures that if any facts are deleted they will be the least important ones.
Also, not everyone has the time nor the interest to read every word in every story. So, if the main facts are in the headline and the first part of the story (the lead, or in journalist terms, the lede), people can be quite well informed without reading right to the end of the news item.
Those Famous 5Ws
The first couple of sentences in a news story are called the lead.
There are many forms of news leads, but the most common is the 5Ws, or summary lead. It is so named because it summarizes the story. It is by far the best approach for student reporters.
Here is a typical news story lead
“A Garden City man was killed instantly Tuesday when the car he was driving skidded off an icy road and hit a concrete bridge foundation, three miles east of Hempstead.
Now search out those 5Ws:
W h o ?A Garden City man
W h e n ?T u e s d a y
W h e r e ?three miles east of Hempstead
W h y ?his car skidded of an icy road
How? Car hit concrete bridge
Excerpt from Citizen Journalism Learning Blog
Here are some example leads. The first set is taken from recent headlines. They are from hard news stories, they are very straightforward, and they make sure to include the essential information:
The next example is also from a straight news story, but it is a little more catchy and imaginative, if less informative:
The last examples are from features, and they are examples of leads with little information, but which are written with the intention of getting the reader hooked: (SOFT NEWS)
In summary, the two aspects of a good lead are:
SAMPLE HARD NEWS STORY
A hard news piece is a news story that gives the facts—who, what, when, where, why, and how.
It is written in a form that allows a reader to get a quick summary in the first, or lead
Wildlifes Scorch West
© Weekly Reader Publishing, Weekly Reader Senior, September 22, 2006
DATELINE – Wildfire damage hit a 10 year high this season. More than 6 million acres of U.S. forests have gone up in smoke so far this year. That’s nearly double the area that burns in an average year,according to the National Interagency Fire Center.
Emergency resources have been pushed to the limit as firefighters have worked to combat
serious blazes throughout the country. “We’ve been pretty busy this fire season,” fire information
officer Russ Rivera told WR News.
National fire officials responded to the spike in wildfires by going to level 5, the highest level.
“When we go to level 5, we’re basically saying there are 500 fire crews working nationally,” says
Each crew comprises 16 to 21 firefighters, making the total active force about 10,000
firefighters —and still they needed reinforcements. Canada, New Zealand, and Australia
deployed, or sent out, military units and firefighters to the United States to help extinguish the
Western states, including Oregon, California, Nevada, Montana, and Wyoming, have
been most affected. Firefighters have battled a tough blaze in Washington state. Ignited by
lightning, the fire has scorched more than 80,000 acres at the Okanogan-Wenatchee National
Forest. Officials don’t expect the fire to be brought under control until early October.
Wildfire season typically begins in June and lasts into November. This year’s season, however,
heated up early with a series of grass fires that blazed through Oklahoma and Texas in January.
Those fires were tough to slow down. “You’re talking about really fast-moving fires,” Rivera said.
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A feature (soft new/human interest) news storyfrom a very particular angle.
The Long Road Home
In New Orleans, families struggle to return to normal one year after Hurricane Katrina.
© Weekly Reader Publishing, Teen Newsweek, 2006
Chakia Boutte, 12, surveys what she has lost in the year since
Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast. The playground where
she once spent afternoons is closed. Her block is full of stormwrecked
homes, many abandoned. A pile of charred debris sits in
front of what used to be Chakia’s house. The home was looted and
burned after her family evacuated in a rescue boat.
“I cried when I saw my house,” she says, remembering the first
time she returned home after the storm. “[Looters] took everything,
even my jar of pennies.”
Chakia and her cousin MikiaKirton, 8, have lived in Houston
since the storm forced their families to move. The girls dreaded
returning to school this fall. They say other kids sometimes make
fun of them. “They say, ‘You used to have a home, now you live in the Astrodome,’” says
Mikia. After Hurricane Katrina, thousands of evacuees had to take
shelter at the Houston Astrodome.
After spending time in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, Toye Domino is happy to be starting
fifth grade in New Orleans. “We had to travel halfway around the country to get back here,” says
Toye, 10. “I want to stay here because it’s my hometown.”
For kids in New Orleans, the start of school is a welcome sign of normalcy. One year ago,
their lives were forever altered by Hurricane Katrina. More than 1,300 people died because of
the Aug. 29, 2005, storm. About 770,000 people were displaced and evacuees scattered across
“New Orleans has changed a lot,” says MyeishaMcDaniels, 13, whose family has moved
back to the city. “Almost everyone I knew is gone.”
This fall, about 56 of the city’s 128 public schools will be open. Officials expected about
30,000 students, down from pre-Katrina enrollment of 60,000. The routine of the school day
seems to help returning students cope, says Desmond Moore, an English teacher at Harriet
Tubman Elementary School. “The kids are adjusting,” he says. “It really feels normal to them to
be back in school.”
Still, there are challenges. The school doesn’t have Internet access. Even basic supplies, such
as textbooks and paper, can be scarce. “It forces you to do a little bit more with less,” says
Government spending for relief and recovery is nearing $100 billion, but the pace of
rebuilding has been uneven. In some places, such as the evident. Mississippi coast, progress is
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A quick and dirty guide to social commerce
Websites Posted on May 31, 2012http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/31916.asp#singleview
I media Connedtion
Social commerce is one of the hottest digital sectors. From the explosive growth of Groupon and Pinterest to the widespread implementation of social sign-on across brand and e-commerce sites, it’s plain to see that many companies are scrambling to leverage social networks and influence in service of their business goals.
Booz and Company estimated that $30 billion in goods and services will be sold within social networks by 2015.
On-network sales are just a segment of the total range of services and vendors that comprise the “social commerce” segment.
The basic concept of social commerce — that social influence and communication networks can be leveraged for business — is nothing new. What is different today is that the explosive growth of social networks, coupled with the availability of connected tools within and outside of such networks, has given people even greater reach and influence over one another.
With so many social options available, it is critical that marketers take an objectives-based approach to evaluating and selecting social commerce tactics and partners for their businesses. Here are a few ideas to get you started.
Understanding social influence
For millennia, people have been influenced by the ideas and actions of others. With the advent of social media, the number of people that we influence and that influence us has grown markedly. For example, without social media, a highly satisfied customer might evangelize your product to perhaps 10 people. With social media, that number can now easily exceed 100, or 1000, or 10,000. Further, the ability to measure and track social influence is dramatically increased by digital social platforms.
Photo: Hans Põldoja
The influence of a particular individual or institution varies — this is based upon a number of factors. These factors include the:
It may sound complicated, but in reality it’s all rather intuitive.
What do we mean by “social commerce?”
At its core, social commerce refers to the use of user contributions and interactions to help sell products and services.
Ultimately, this means using social networks and media to help people become aware of options, consider their choices, make purchase decisions, and eliminate friction in the buying process. We all want to make better choices, and the process of gathering information to make those decisions can be made easier through our relationships with others.
The six types of social commerce solutions
There are a variety of categorization models available to “bucket” social commerce solutions and companies. The European agency SyZyGy developed an excellent categorization model for social commerce solutions and providers. Those who are looking for more than a top-line view of the category would do well to visit the site Social Commerce Today. I’m going to do my best to do it justice by providing a capsule summary of the market segmentation model, which classifies categories and companies into six groups:
The common denominator in this set of services is empowering people to simultaneously shop online with others. The category encompasses group buying (e.g., Groupon and Living Social), socially empowered shopping experiences (i.e., an online store using Facebook Connect to enable a richer and more interactive shopping experience onsite), stores within social networks (e.g., Facebook stores), group gifting (e.g., eBay’s GroupGifts service), and social shopping portals such as Kaboodle.
Ratings and Reviews
One of the most ubiquitous forms of social commerce, these services allow consumers to rate and leave comments about goods and services. The largest such platform is probably Amazon.com, which includes ratings and comments on virtually every item offered. While we often think about these as simple text based recommendations, services such as ExpoTV and Zuberance have expanded this category to include video and encourage recommendations.
Recommendations and Ratings
This category focuses more on recommendations for specific audiences, rather than universal availability — social referral programs (e.g., Extole) fall squarely into this category. The key difference between these offerings and those in the previous category is that the recommendations group generally uses the personal networks of participants to spread the message, whereas the services in the previous category are available to any viewer.
Forums and Communities
Forums and communities have been around almost as long as the internet itself. In the context of social commerce, these terms refer to brand-sponsored venues for the sharing of information. Examples might include a Mercedes Owners Club, or the American Express Open Small Business community. Here people organically share information and advice related to categories and products.
Social Media Optimization
This category refers to the use of social media to drive more qualified traffic to an online sales environment. It encompasses using social for SEO, link building, offer and deal feeds, company news feeds, and other means by which links can be disseminated.
Social Ads and Applications
Here the focus is on socially empowered ad messages. The range includes socialized ads, social shopping apps, and remote catalogue or shopping units.
Evaluating social commerce options for your brand
In order to identify the best strategies and tactics, it can be helpful to start with a simple assessment focused on six key questions:
What are the business goals of this effort, and how will performance be measured?
Selecting a platform should begin with a review of your goals and measures. Different platforms will be able to “move the needle” in different ways and to different degrees.
What channels are you trying to address, and what is their relative importance?
Many products and services sell through a variety of channels. “Own” stores, online retailers, supermarkets, and department stores are just a few of the options. The set of channels you use should play an important role in determining the social commerce approaches you deploy.
Companies that sell goods primarily or exclusively online were among the first movers in social commerce, both because many of the tools were designed for online stores and because tracking the impact of social commerce on sales is easier when digital actions can be tied directly to specific purchases. Offline retailers and brands sold primarily in brick and mortar stores have generally been slower movers in social commerce, but that is changing. A great example is Procter and Gamble, which was among the first CPGs to incorporate social influence into its websites and other marketing experiences. Additionally, the company has experimented with intriguing new retail formats like Facebook stores in order to determine their potential impact.
What are the bottlenecks in your customer flow?
The concept of a buying funnel — the progression of consumers from awareness to purchase has driven marketing decisions for decades. Chances are the other elements of your marketing mix are already aligned to the greatest communications needs. If so, then the challenge of selecting the best social commerce tools is a relatively simple one. The needs of businesses change over time and the range of appropriate social commerce tools may change or expand over that time. For example, if your biggest problem was awareness and your first social tactics focus on that area, increases in awareness may shift your greatest marketing need to increasing conversion rates. A second social commerce tool — like a review and ratings platform — might then make a great deal of sense.
What aspects of the product or service are most important to prospects?
Understanding the attributes that matter most to consumers is a critical step in making the right social commerce decisions. Ensure that the social commerce platform you choose has the “legs” to communicate the most important product information and attributes. Some tools like ratings offer the advantages of ease and universality, while others — like video reviews and social shopping — provide much richer platforms, but with perhaps less reach.
Photo: Paul Bica
This is truly a fascinating new arena — one that is thriving because of the “perfect storm” of new buying options, ubiquitous connectivity, and the explosion of social tools available.
As next steps, I suggest you talk to a few of the companies making news in the space. These companies can provide a great deal of color and granularity for the sectors in which they operate. I truly believe that there is a tool (or set of tools) out there for most brands, and that the first movers will reap tremendous benefits in the months and years ahead. Why not be one of them?
Jim Nichols is vice president of branding at ROI DNA.
On Twitter? Follow iMedia Connection at @iMediaTweet.
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Topic 7 – The Business of Advertising
Advertising is an enormous global business with expenditures in the billions. These expenditures in the areas of media placement, promotions and productions, are growing at approximately 6% a year. Although network television, the most costly and desirable placement presently, on the decline, new media options present alternatives that allow for great targeting of potential consumers.
Advertising agencies have changed significantly over the last two decades and New York is no longer the only center for the industry. Excellent agencies are located other cities including Chicago, San Francisco, Portland, Minneapolis, and Seattle to name a few.
The American Association of Advertising Agencies define an advertising agency as “an independent business, composed of creative and business people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods or services,” (p. 137, Kleppner’s). There are somewhere between 9,000 and 10,000 agencies nationwide.
The Early Age (until 1917)
Kleppner notes that the first Americans to act as advertising agents were the colonial postmasters who would accept copy for publication in papers.
In the mid 1800’s, space salesmen and wholesalers began purchasing space3 and reselling smaller “squares” at their own retail rate. Each wholesaler had their own publications and their own rates, all of which were negotiable.
However within twenty years, one of the early wholesalers set up a directory of publications that indicated his own estimation at their circulation and then offered advertisers space at a cost based on circulation. Of course, his estimation may or may not have been accurate and certainly would have favored his publications.
By the 1870s, copywriting and other creative services were offered and in 1875 one of the first agencies was formed, N.W. Ayer. Ayer billed advertisers for what the agency paid for space and then added a fixed charge to the services instead of a commission. His clients agreed to place their advertising through him.
To offer further incentive for clients to place advertising through their agencies, publishers agreed to pay commissions to agencies only if a full price was collected from their clients for placement, a policy that remained in existence for over 100 years. The commission was set at 15% as standard and is still in effect today. What that means is that the agency purchased space for the client at the publication’s cost and the client paid the full price to the agency but the agency was actually billed 85% of the total, and thus the 15% not billed to the agency served as payment for services rendered to the client.
Also standard today is that the cost to product advertising (i.e., photography, film production, music etc) is charged to the client at a fee of 17.65% of the net (which actually equals 15% of the gross).
A full service agency is “one that offers clients all the services necessary to handle the total advertising function – planning, creation, production, placement and evaluation,” (p. 142, Kleppner’s).
A full service agency includes a number of advertising professionals to meet the promotional needs of clients as well as offering a global reach to those seeking it. An assembly of creative and technical personnel as well as marketing and research personnel help in the planning process. Administrative services are provided as well. The agency develops a plan revolving around the marketing problem by suggesting a strategy, a creative response, a media plan and a total plan. Usually the agency is divided into four sections: account services, marketing services, creative services, and management and finance.
A creative boutique emphasizes the copy and art services to its clients. Other aspects of ad planning and placement are handled either by the advertiser or contracted out to other facilitators.
A mega agency owns many agencies worldwide and can shift portions of accounts from one office to another without going through an agency review. When a client wants to consider a new or fresh agency, a mega agency can offer the services of different offices with a fresh creative pool to work with. Moreover, the size of the media placement that a mega agency buys allows for superior ability in negotiating with the media. The largest disadvantage is the conflicts between accounts from the different offices that are in the same product category. No client wants their product handled in an office that is also handling the advertising for a competitor.
A media buying service, though not an agency, is an independent organization specializing in buying media time and space, especially on television and radio, and as a service to ad agencies and advertisers. This purchasing task has become more complex because of the numerous media options. An agency or advertiser will prepare the strategy and then hire a service to actually do the buying. Again, as with a mega agency, the service buys in large quantities and thus can usually obtain lower costs.
Interactive agencies are a newer form of agency that prepare communications for new media such as the internet and interactive television. These new agencies have specialized talent and expertise that many traditional agencies do not. Some full-service agencies are opening special groups to handle new media needs (i.e., Ogilvy Direct).
An in-house agency is an advertising department within a firm. Using its own personnel allows greater control over the product as well as saving on commissions that an outside agency might earn. However keeping everything in-house limits objectivity as well as the experience of an outside agency.
The creative department comes up with the concepts that express to a target audience the value and benefits offered by their clients’ brands. The creative group develops the ad message. Generally the group is headed by a creative director who has subgroups headed by associate creative directors with writers and art directors and producers. The creative and production personnel breathe life into the ad message.
The production department may be a separate department, allowing for the sharing of information among the staff producers. There is so much talent available for production that a producer often receives 5 to 10 demo reels a week. It is very helpful to be able to share information about directors and production houses and experiences with suppliers among the producers. However it is also helpful to be integrated within the creative department and sit with the writers and producers. This position allows the producer early access and input into project and a greater familiarity with the client. I have experienced both agency situations during my 15 years as an agency producer and both have their advantages and disadvantages. Ideally a producer will be involved with the initial creative approach as they are the moving image specialist on staff.
The account services department has personnel with titles such as account executive, account supervisor or account manager and works with the client to prepare the advertising. Account service identifies the benefits of a product or service, the audience, the best positioning and then develops a complete advertising plan. Sometimes it also can do analysis and research regarding consumer behavior. These account personnel work with the client in preparing the ad message through the creative services in the agency as well as work with media services to develop media strategies. Account services keeps the various arms of the agency on time and within budget and is the liaison with the client.
Marketing services in an agency are located within: sales promotion and event sponsorships, direct marketing and public relations. Most agencies have a small department and will hire freelance personnel as needed for special events. Certainly when a public relations response is required, an outside firm is generally called in to handle the event or crisis. PR is a very specific form of communication and requires specialists to direct the effort.
Often a full service agency will have a one or two person research department that will hire special research facilities and facilitators as required. Research to be conducted is generally done through a research firm but directed through the agency research department.
As a business, an agency will also have a staff of business managers who run the day to day business of the agency. This includes administrative services such as a personnel department to hire (and fire) staff as well as handle benefits packages, payroll department and other business activities required (i.e., just ordering and paying the Xerox, telephone, electrical and supplies bills).
Depending on the size and needs of an agency, there may also be a talent negotiator and talent payroll department. If the agency does a great deal of television and radio production, then a negotiator is required. However there are independent companies that will pay talent for not only session payments but also residuals as earned. This is a complicated process and requires a specialist to calculate earnings.
When a number of agencies are employed to service an account, an agency of record will be appointed to issue all media orders and keep a record of all advertising placed (i.e., McDonald’s, Anheiser-Busch). The agency of record is paid a fee by the other agencies for executing a media buy however the other agencies still earn their 15% earned commission on media placement..
As noted above, many agencies for many years used the 15% media discount as compensation for their services. But as media options proliferated, so did the costs to prepare advertising and 15% often does not cover costs.
Today many agencies prefer to be paid by a fee based upon the services provided. Any out of pocket charges are covered by the client (with an agency markup of about .1765%) and then a fee for service is added. Some agencies agree to a performance fee in which the client will pay the agreed upon fee if the performance objectives are met, will pay a bonus if the performance is exceeded and will reduce the fee if the performance is not met. Performance is based upon research goals clearly specified in the advertising plan.
There are some costs that an agency will absorb as necessary for conducting business with a client and these include travel costs to attend client meetings out of town as well as entertaining costs.
Other communication organizations: