Discuss the implications of at least 5 major health-related issues in population aggregates that surround your current nursing practice and the local community. Describe your understanding of the specialization of public health nursing and community health nursing and how it has historically evolved to impact healthcare systems in the US and globally by outlining 5 key facts?
1). Health is an important aspect of human life as it boosts efficiency and enhances productivity of an individual. In Arkansas the major health issues that affect the population include, alcoholism, diabetes, obesity, teen pregnancy, chronic health conditions and sexually transmitted diseases. This health issues have far reaching implications to the patients themselves and to the health practitioners. They have decreased productivity of the affected individuals as well as leading to stigmatization of their individual characteristics. With the mandate of the health care system being to help in the improvement of the quality of life and a community’s health through provision of treatment and preventive measure against theses diseases, the health department has been criticized far failing to achieve their main objective by failing to encourage healthy living amongst individuals. Additionally the continuing spread of sexually transmitted diseases has motivated the health department to distribute condoms as part of preventive measures to curb the rise of the sexually transmitted diseases. The programs that have been set to combat obesity issues have not been successful and the obesity rate has witnessed growth. Healthy people has set its eyes on helping adolescents improve their health, well being and safety but the current rate of teen pregnancy does not reflect this. They have also pledged to foster sexual behaviors that are healthy and this has been achieved by handing of condoms in hospitals and other health centers.
2). Community health nursing is a combination of both nursing practice and health and public health nursing. It is involves practices of preventing, curing as well as rehabilitating patients (American Public Health Association, n.d). Additionally a community nurse is not confined to caring of a selected diagnostic group or patients of a particular age. Florence Nightingale has been considered as the pioneer of modern nursing [although nursing origins are untraceable], and through her efforts the death toll of soldiers reduced. From her works, globalization has opened doors for modern nursing to traverse internationally. This has been encouraged by government participation in funding the medical and nursing sector as well as participation of non governmental organization in funding nursing activities. Technological advancement especially in transportation has enabled the nursing field to be internationalized as nurses can move from one point to the other with much ease. Additionally, advancement in the field of medicine has seen to it that nurses have the correct medicine and health apparatus to ensure proper delivery of services. The setting up of medical schools has ensured that the human resource required to nourish the profession is always available. Furthermore with advancement in technology it has become possible for various fields of medicine to be split and survive on their own and hence encouraging specialization. For instance, nurses can choose to fully specialize on mid-wifery, this makes a nurse be conversant with the requirements of the particular procedure. The advantage that accrues entails minimizing of risks during specialized processes. Government subsidy into the health system has enabled citizens gain access to public health and therefore the increase in the amount of people does warrantee an increase in the number of nurses. This has helped in the growth of the nursing profession. The creation of doctors without boundaries has enabled the nurses spread globally especially to assist in areas where people are in urgent need of nursing or even medical services.
3). Morality in nursing is governed by ethics [especially by the Hippocratic Oath]. A nurse is expected to act with decorum that exhibit maturity in their ethics. Therefore a nurse is expected to assess critically every medical situation independently while having in mind the life of the patient as the most important factor. The nurse has to be sure that the type of medical procedure and treatment being administered to the patient is appropriate. The work of a nurse is affected both positively and negatively by the economic conditions of the environment. Availability of funds means that a nurse would have it easy delivering their duties and hence efficient work. Additionally, it would make availability of essential medicine easy and hence realization of the core goal of the nurse. The opposite is true, lack of finance will lead to poor services due to lack of proper medical necessities. Additionally it will lead to poor remuneration of nurses and hence lack of content in the work they are doing.
4). Health care delivery is not discriminatory. This is premised on the fact that diseases too are not discriminatory. Therefore, nurses find themselves caring for people from different cultures all at the same time (Glenn, n.d). This calls for nurses to educate themselves on cultural issues in order to serve the ever increasing multicultural patient (Maren, 2004). This can be justified by the increase in migration form one country or from one geographical location to the other that has been facilitated with increased international relations and efforts by countries to share the available human resource. The government has got a duty to avail medical services to the citizens and hence fulfill the right to healthcare of every individual. This is an important aspect because the citizens pay taxes to the government and the government owes them this right as enshrined in the constitution. Provision of medical care by the government helps diverse population by making sure that health centers are constructed proportionally to the population by relevant government statistics.
5). The fundamental role of the nurse has always undergone change. This is not about to stop, it will continue changing as time goes by. As society continues advancing, so will the field of medicine. Sophisticated medical apparatus and new methods of treatment will be realized. Additionally, it is expected that diseases too will crop up at the same rate the society grows. Therefore, the legal obligation of the nurse to the client and to the medical fraternity is expected to grow more complex than it already is. Nurses will be expected to act in accordance to the law and this may at times hamper the execution of their duties due to fear of indictments. The role of nurses will change In the future because they will be required to participate more in creation of conducive work environment. The expected improvement will enhance nurses’ competency as well as improving patient’s confidence on medical institutions.
6). Genomics is important in the field of medicine because it helps in determining the root causes of diseases and hence accord the best treatment to an individual. The study of genes is important especially to a family that has got ahistory of genetic inheritance disesese like cancer and diabetes. If a patients knows their family history then it becomes easy to take preventive measures and avert diseases aerly and hence ensure a health living.
7). When teching adolescents it is imperative that their feelings be respected. Adolescents are shy individuals and most do not comprehend the changes going on in their bodies. Therefore separation pf the male gender from the female gender becomes important so that theydo not become shy and fail to air their concerns. The interest of the adolescent should take precedent over all other isues as they are the main culprits of their bidy changes.
8). Nurses have got an important role to play in prevention of communicable diseases. From the evidence collected nurses can be able to enhance surveillance systems as well as setting strategies to control present and future outbreaks of a particular disease. Additionally it will help in conducting proper research on a particular issue by eliminating past errors made by previous researches. Moreover, it will help in finding proper hygiene measures as well as setting strategies of disease prevention. While delivering on medical services, cost should not be overemphasized at the expense of quality. Morally speaking, human life cannot be equated in monetary terms. The value of human life is unprecedented. Therefore in line with the Hippocratic Oath, nurses should emphasize on ensuring a patient receives the best treatment, later on consideration for the treatment will be sought from the patient for the service delivered. In addressing the issue on communicable diseases, various challenges are expected; for instance, Lack of financial backing from the relevant authorities is a big problem, lack of portable specialized equipment to address some health issues, lack of knowledge by patients concerning certain some ailments, laxity by patients to accept new form of treatments, to some patients the cost of treatments may be too high and hence may shun receiving treatment.
9). Health promotion is impportant in the community. It helps in sensitizing the communinity members on health issues that they were not aware of and also advising them on the best way forward to improveon their health. A program like reduction in obesity related cases in children would most be effected by teaching children the importance of healthy eating in classes and start by eliminating junk and fatty foods from the school menu. Additonally it would include sensitizing children on the mportance of exercise to their bodies. Obesity and other health issues in the community do encounter challenges when comes to implimentation. Therefore there implementation would include asking the government to help in funding the programs as well as implementing legislation to help in solving the issues.
10). A nursing centre in my community is important because health provision to the residents of the country is guaranteed in the constitution. Therefore no region should be discriminated when health care providence is considered. With population of nurses to doctors being fundamentally low, a new nursing center would ensure citizen in my community get health care in a more convenient manner. To enhance proper delivery of health services, proper TQM methods should be considered. TQM refers to adherence on total quality management. It entails provision of service [in the nursing sector] to best suit the health needs of the patients who are like ‘customers’ to the health institutions. Nurses have to ensure that they provide treatment to the patients in the most cost effective, patient friendly and expeditiously too (Novick, Cynthia & Glen, 2008).
American Public Health Association. (n.d). Role of Public Health Nurses. Retrieved 1st May 2012. From http://www.apha.org/membergroups/sections/aphasections/phn/about/phnroles.htm
Glenn, A.M. (n.d). Towards a Theory of Language Barriers among Linguistic Minorities in the United States. Language and Power in Healthcare. University of Texas Pan American. Retrieved 1st May 2012. From http://utpa.academia.edu/GlennMartinez/Papers/394327/Language_and_Power_in_Healt hcare_Towards_a_theory_of_language_barriers_among_linguistic_minorities_in_the_Un ited_States
Maren, J.C. (2004). Cultural Caring In Nursing Practise: A Meta-synthesis of Qualitative Research. Retrieved 1st May 2012. From http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJU/is_3_11/ai_n8585216/
Novick, L.F., Cynthia, B.M., & Glen, P.M. (2008). Public Health Administration: Principles for Population-Based Management (2nd Ed.) Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
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