32) There are numerous ways to do target hardening. Some are not all that desirable or ethical. Using the military distinction between “soft” (attackable from all directions) and “hard” (attackable from only one direction) targets, a soft target can be hardened by armor, camouflage, mobility, co-location with a defended location, or a less humane approach such as utilizing a human shield or by placing it in a sensitive location. There is even something called “security thru obscurity” which makes a target safer by making no big deal about it. This sometimes works. Using another military analogy, a distinction can be made between “outer” and “inner” perimeter. As most security textbooks (e.g., Fischer 2003) define these concepts, an outer perimeter consists of: barriers, fences, or walls; gates or locks; lighting; surveillance; roofs and walls; and zones; and an inner perimeter consists of: doors and pass systems; files, safes, and vaults; inspections; and alarms. Security thru obscurity is one of the most common prevention techniques in use today, but its use is increasingly limited due to the snoopiness of people who want to use new media, like the Internet or Google maps to “blow the whistle” on secret facilities. What are your thoughts on the concept “security through obscurity?”
33) In a case likely to become an important precedent under international law (Public Committee Against Torture, Committee for Clean Environment and Human Rights vs. The State of Israel, HCJ 769/02), the Israeli High Court in late 2006 ruled that the practice of targeted killing is not inherently illegal, especially when used against suspected terrorists, but each case must be assessed individually and in accordance with the laws of armed conflict. For the Israelis, this means that the underlying conditions must involve some constant, continual, and murderous wave of terrorist attacks; the terrorist in question must have forfeited their right to the protected status of noncombatant by virtue of their participation in terrorism, including planning or preparation without signs of withdrawal or abandonment; and the international law principle of proportionality must be observed by seeking to bring about a quick peace or have other cost-benefit advantages. List the four general rules the Israelis have pretty much lived by in this area – state briefly your thoughts on these.
34) The phrase “enemy combatant” is considered ”legally” meaningless by some. Enemy combatants come in many shapes and forms. They can be paramilitary, militia, mercenary, rebel, revolutionary, guerrilla, terrorist, or insurgent. They can be women and children, criminals and delinquents, sympathizers and supporters, or disabled and deranged. They can be part of previously unknown networks and subcultures. How does one distinguish, theoretically, ethically, and appropriately, “legals” from “illegals” among the many combatants one encounters?
Answer all of the following in your own words of about 150words each, and use the appropriate dropbox for these WRITING assignments.
(A) it is suggested by some authors that the U.S. should drive a wedge between Muslim extremists and the rest of the Islamic world. How could this be accomplished without alienating a good number of Muslims we don’t want to alienate, and is the wedge strategy a good one to rely on? How would you go about doing it?
B) The importance of resolve or morale is mentioned as a characteristic of victory, and in the lecture on Threat Analysis, it is mentioned as a contingency factor. How important is a nation’s resolve or morale in combating terror? Assess the current level of America’s resolve.
(D) Elaborate upon an example of a target in today’s world which needs more “hardening” and how you would “harden” it.
(F) Assume that AQ has been totally defeated and global terrorism is now down to tolerable levels. (Wishful thinking obviously!) What’s next to fight or combat?