Either identify, summarize, and critique the theory you plan to use for your TEP Exemplar Paper, or if you have not finalized your selection, any nursing theory will be acceptable. Sources for nursing theories include using the McEwen & Wills text or accessing various theory websites.?Use 1 of the approaches for critique and evaluation of theory described in chapter 5 of the McEwen & Wills text. Be sure to clearly identify the approach you use (name the model/approach and the authors/researchers who developed the model—then follow the selected approach for the analysis). ??This analysis must be 6–8 pages in length with at least 2–3 scholarly sources.
following is a summary and critique of Shelly and Miller’s (2006) “Shalom Health” Theory (a Christian worldview for nursing). The synthesized method of theory evaluation was used to perform this brief critique and analysis. According to McEwen and Wills (2007), this method was designed to evaluate middle range and practice theories. This method was chosen to evaluate a grand theory because it appears to be the most comprehensive and inclusive technique.
Scope of Theory
The Shalom Health theory is consistent with grand theory.
Purpose of Theory
To determine the characteristics of a Christian worldview in nursing.
Origin of Theory
Shelly and Miller (2006) developed and present the Shalom Health theory (A Christian worldview for nursing) in their book titled, Called to Care. They note that alternative spiritualties, a move away from the physical care of the body, nursing restructuring based on economics, and other forces have moved nursing away from its roots in a Christian worldview. Shelly and Miller contend that nursing cannot work toward the goal of health without including a clear proclamation of the gospel.
Worldview, metaparadigm, revelation, Biblical truth, Creator God,
Redeemer, Holy Spirit, person, imago Dei, relational, moral, spiritual, supracultural, seen environment, unseen environment, health, shalom, meaning, hope, nursing. All are defined and explained.
Major Theoretical Propositions
• Nursing grew out of a Christian worldview in response to Jesus’ teaching and example of caring for the sick. The Christian worldview is unique and cannot be superimposed on any other worldview.
• The Holy Bible, God’s revealed word, is truth; in the Christian worldview, truth is defined differently than in modernism and postmodernism.
• The Christian worldview of nursing relies on God’s word in developing its metaparadigm: person, environment, health, and nursing.
• The nursing metaparadigm begins with God; God is the Creator of the universe and all that is in it but God is greater than the universe; God is a Person, not a universal force.
• God created human beings in His own image to live in shalom (health), a health that allows the person to live at peace in a God-centered community with a sense of physical, psychosocial, and spiritual wellbeing.
• Human beings’ relationship with God was broken by human sinfulness, a type of destruction human initiative could not restore; God provided a redeemer who brought about restoration of shalom by His death and resurrection.
• Nursing works toward shalom among individuals and the community.
“What we believe about God shapes our understanding of human persons and the environment… [and] that informs our concept of health….So as
Christians, we begin with a theology of nursing more than a philosophy or theory” (Shelly & Miller, 2006, p. XX).
Context for Use
Universal application for diverse cultures and within various forms of nursing practice.
Theoretical Definitions for Major Concepts
Person—a Christian worldview regards all people as created by God in His image; every person is separated from God by sin but that relationship is restored by God through faith in Jesus Christ. Environment—understood in a Christian worldview as created by God who made it good; it has been polluted by sin and awaits redemption by God. Health—in a Christian worldview, wellness, or health, is being able to live as God created us to live—as an integrated whole in loving relationship with God. Nursing—in a Christian worldview, nursing is a ministry of compassionate care whole person, in response to God’s grace, which aims to foster optimum health (shalom).
Consistent Use of Concepts, Statements and Assumptions
Theory uses concepts consistently internally and also consistently in relation to Christian principles and biblical scripture.
Theory is logical and presented in a systematic format.
Models and graphic displays are used throughout this grand theory to explain linkages among major concepts.
Congruence with Nursing Standards
Elements of this grand theory are highly congruent with primary nursing values adhered to throughout the history of nursing.
Congruence with Current Nursing Interventions or Therapeutics and Evidence of Empirical Testing/Research Support/Validity
The Shalom Health theory has very recently been published and has potential application in areas of spiritual care, hospice, parish nursing, oncology nursing, mental health nursing (to date it has not been formally tested).
Use by Nursing Educators, Nursing Researchers, or Nursing Administrators
The theory is potentially useful in Christian universities’ nursing education programs.
Social and Transcultural Relevance
Authors pay significant attention to transcultural implications.
Contribution to Nursing
Shelly and Miller’s (2006) Shalom Health theory presents worldviews of modernism and postmodernism, showing how these have been incorporated in nursing grand theories which currently shape and dominate nursing values and practice and how they contrast with Christian worldview.
Conclusions and Implications
Shelly and Miller demonstrate that current nursing grand theories are not “value neutral.” This reality has significance for all areas of nursing. The Exemplar Paper, will show, for example, how this supposed value neutrality has dominated nursing diagnosis. One result of the “dominance” of (supposedly) value neutral grand theories in nursing are the exclusion of the Christ
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