SCI 207 WEEK 2 Discussion Responses

I need help responding to these two discussion posts 100 words each

In the United States, we are fortunate to have an abundant supply of food. However, this abundance is largely due to advances in agricultural technologies, which have in turn created numerous concerns surrounding our food sources. Provide at least two recent (since the Green Revolution ended) examples of how the United States has increased its food production, and discuss how these changes have affected both the environment and food safety.  Possible innovations you might cover include, but are not limited to: GM agriculture, polyculture farming, permaculture farming, vertical farms, small-scale organic farming, aquaponics, concentrated animal feeding operations, urban gardening (rooftop and vacant lot), not-till farming, precision farming, use of drones, and use of GPS technology.  

Dominique Gilmore

Two ways that the United States has increased food production one is urban gardening and genetic modification. Urban gardening improves local food supplies and puts marginal lands to wise use and absorbs wastes in the form of compost” (Patel, 2008, p. 35). Urban gardening is the process in which plants of different types and varieties are grown in an urban environment.

Genetic modification is a debatable subject is said that cotton fields had produced Amaranthus palmeri and it grew to become herbicide resistant which is making farmers lose an abundance of their crops (Turk & Bensel, 2014). Genetic modification is also known as genetic engineering, genes are transferred between organisms to make something new.

These two different ways are used to increase food production today. Pesticides are being used on plants to keep insects and some animals from them to keep them disease free. “Since crop production is a very serious business, chemicals are introduced and help tremendously by protecting against diseases that are carried by insects and other different threats (Mrak, 1984).”

Patel, I., (2008). Rutgers Urban Gardening: A Case Study in Urban Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural & Food Information. 35-46. doi:10.1300/J108V03N03_05

Turk, J., & Bensel, T. (2014). Contemporary environmental issues (2nd ed.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.) 
Links to an external site.

Mrak, E. (1984). Pesticides: the good and the bad. Regul, Toxicol, Pharmacol. Mar;4(1):28-36. Online source:

Heather Kiesling 

 The Green Revolution was the technological response to a world-wide food shortage which became threatening in the period after WWII. The Green Revolution transformed farming practices where the principal food crops were rice, wheat and maize. How these foods are grown, processed, and distributed can have significant impacts on the environment, and there is concern that conventional approaches cannot be sustained over the long term.  It was also thought that the “Green Revolution reduced the natural fertility of the soil (FAO. Fertilizer Yearbook, 1994).”  An increased use of chemical herbicides and pesticides has also reduced the soils resistance to disease.

 Farmers with extra profits often invest in new farming machinery, which intensifies the Green Revolution’s commercial approach to agriculture. “The Green Revolution also created a number of other problems, including the overuse of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation that depleted nutrients from the soil (Turk, J., & Bensel, T. (2014).”

 Next we see another increase in food production was brought on by genetically modified foods, or GMO’s, which are foods that have had their DNA modified for a number of desired traits.  The many chemical compounds present in foods behave in extremely complex ways in the human body. Although GMO foods are rigorously tested, there may be some subtle, long-term effects that cannot be detected yet. The planting of herbicide-resistant crops might encourage farmers to use weed killers more freely, since they could then be applied indiscriminately to crop fields. As a result, this increase may poison fish, wild animals, and plants and could get into human drinking water. Knowing this information, we see many challenges ahead especially in the areas of safety testing, regulation, and food labeling. Many feel that genetic engineering is the inevitable wave of the future and that we cannot afford to ignore a technology that has potential benefits. However, we must proceed with caution so as not to cause unintended harm to humans or our environment.

 I would like to offer my voice in concern regarding genetic engineering in agriculture.  One major impact of GM crops — at least, the majority of such crops, which have been produced by Monsanto to be tolerant to the herbicide Roundup (which Monsanto also sells) — is that they are producing super weeds.  It is not simply that farmers are tempted to use more Roundup — after all, Roundup is very costly, and farmers use only what they absolutely need.  Instead, they have to use more and more of it, because weeds are rapidly evolving a tolerance for it.  Eventually, the result is, and will be, more and more weeds that simply cannot be killed with Roundup at all.  Then what?  All that is left to farmers is to go out into their fields and pull the weeds by hand.

Here is an article about what is happening:

 Heather Kiesling


Turk,J.,& Benzel,T(2014) Contemporary environmental issues[2nd ED] San Diego,CA: Bridge point Education,Inc

FAO. Fertilizer Yeahttp://www.faostat.fao.orgrbook, (1994). 

Civility on the Internet hu260 Need done in 18hrs

Strategies for Decision Making – Week 8 Assignment

Civility on the Internet

The internet offers anonymity, and anonymity changes the way in which we present ourselves. Many individuals, acting behind the veil of a screen, say things and do things that they would otherwise not do in a face-to-face environment. This has led to an online phenomenon known as “trolling,” wherein individuals deliberately act to incite anger or resentment. Add to this the ways in which online discussions can get heated very quickly, and it is clear that civility is becoming a lost art.

You will be writing a five-paragraph essay in which you explain the nature of civility, why it is important in an online setting, and what can be done to recover civility in the context of news media and cyber-culture.

1.  Your first paragraph should contain a definition of civility and an explanation of what it means to be civil.

2.  Your second paragraph should contain an explanation of what it means to be civil in an online setting. Why do we need civility online? Why do you think the internet tends to foster incivility?

3.  Your third paragraph should contain a discussion of what can be done to recover civility. How can we promote civility online? What are some ways in which we avoid heated discussions and debates?

4.  Your fourth paragraph should apply what you have said about civility to a specific contentious issue in today’s culture (e.g. healthcare, gun control, capital punishment, abortion, war, economic policy). What does it mean to have a civil discussion about said issue? How can being civil advance our understanding of this issue?

5.  Your final paragraph will summarize what you have said and make concluding remarks about civility going forward. What advice would you give to internet users about developing and maintaining a sense of civility in the way they approach online interactions?

Your completed assignment should be approximately 1000 words. Submit your paper, written in APA style, including a title page, reference page, and appropriate citations, to the dropbox for grading.

400 word Public Health Discussion (Cost-Effectiveness of Public Decisions) HIV/AIDS PREVENTION PILL

Be on time and original work

400 words not including title min 3 ref (APA)


Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) may be an important aid to public health decision making, but, with some notable exceptions, its use and impact at the level of individual countries is limited. A number of reasons may account for this. Among them are technical shortcomings associated with the generation of current economic evidence, political expediency, social preferences, and systemic barriers to implementation.

The application of CEA provides a new economic evidence base. It also provides for underlying methodological developments concerning the cost-effectiveness of a range of health interventions for leading causes of, and risk factors for, disease. CEA can be tailored to the specific context of individual communities by adjustment to the quantity and unit prices of intervention inputs (costs) or the coverage, efficacy, and adherence rates of interventions (effectiveness).

For this Discussion, you explore the concept of cost-effectiveness analysis. Then, explain how this might be used to measure overall public health benefit.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post a description of the individual community and intervention HIV/AIDS PREVENTION MEDICATION . Then, explain how you would tailor the CEA of that community to the intervention and a brief description of cost-effectiveness analysis. Then, explain how cost-effectiveness analysis might be used to measure overall public health benefit. Explain whether it is more cost-effective to allocate resources for one public health program versus another.

  • Evaluate the economic concepts and principles behind the allocation of investing resources for the implementation of your selected public health initiative