Blog

Critical Literary Theories

Reflect: In the Critical Literary Theories (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. handout, four different kinds of critical approaches are presented. Consider which of the four theories you find most interesting as a means for understanding literature.

Write: Your initial post should be at least 200 words in length. The minimum word count does not include references. Choose two of the critical approaches presented in the Critical Literary Theories (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. handout and address the points below.

Imagine you are the teacher, and you have a student who does not understand these approaches. How would you describe each, in your own words? Be sure to give a specific example of how the approach would be applied to a critical reading of a text.
Compare and/or contrast the two critical approaches. What is each of them most interested in exploring?
Consider the text you wrote for your Literary Analysis Draft assignment in Week 3, and select one of the two approaches you wrote about above. What literary elements, themes, and conflict would you focus on if applying this approach to an analysis of the text? Review the List of Literary Techniques (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. and Types of Conflicts Found in Literature (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. documents for assistance.

What is literary criticism? 
 
Literary Critical Theory is a tool that helps you find meaning in stories, poems and plays.  There are many different ways to interpret a novel or short story.   
 
When we read literature, we do so to learn more about:  The human condition  The experience of loss and death    The structure of power in society and how it is implemented (including the issues that surround race and gender).  The psychology of characters and individuals in general  The sociology and history of cultures that produce specific pieces of literature 
 
Literary Theory helps us discover the things listed above in the books and stories we read.  
 
How do I apply Literary Critical Theory to read a book? So how do you use theory to read a book?  Before exploring, in brief, different theories, it is important to develop a reading strategy that will help you form ideas.   
Woman Reading Book in a Landscape, Camille Corot 
ENG125: Introduction to Literature  
 
You should keep a reading notebook and write down ideas and information as you read.  Here is a checklist of things to notice:  Title:  How does it pertain to the story?  Does it symbolize events or people in the story?  Narration:  Who is telling the story?  How does the narrator approach the topic?    Subject:  What is the basic situation?  What is happening to the characters and how are they reacting to events?  Mood:  What is the mood of the story, i.e. the emotional background?   How is it expressed in the language and setting?  Characters:  What do the characters learn in the course of the story?  What are their failings and how do they overcome them, or not?  What is the main character’s desire?  Is that desire ever fulfilled?  How does the main character change?  Character Interaction:  How do the characters interact in the story?  How do they communicate with each other?  How do they handle conflict?  Plot: What are the main events in the plot that lead the character to new insights, or to his or her failure?   
 
When you read a book, you can highlight the passages that strike you as significant.  You can also write notes in the margin of the text to yourself, which is called “annotation.” 
 
 
 
ENG125: Introduction to Literature  
What are the Critical Literary Theories? There are many different kinds of theories, including gender/feminist criticism; race theory; Marxist; Biographical; Deconstructism; Structrualism; Post-colonial critical theory. However, the four Critical Literary Theories that we will learn about in this class include:  
 
 Formalism or New Criticism  Reader Response Theory  Psychological Theory  New Historicism Analysis 
 
What is Formalism Theory or New Criticism? 
 
 
This approach views each piece of literature as “a unique form of human knowledge that needs to be examined on its own terms” (Kennedy & Gioia, 1995).  Contained within the work itself are all the elements necessary for understanding it.  The formalist critic focuses on the form, including style, structure, tone, imagery, etc.   These critics analyze how certain elements work together within a text to impose certain effects on the readers. 
 
Example:  Tim O’Brien’s story “The Things They Carry” (about his experience in the Vietnam War) is analyzed not by using his biography or history to interpret the story.  Instead, you look at all elements inside the work:  diction (use of language), character, plot, metaphor, and imagery.  Key questions a Formalist Critic asks:  
Empire of Light by René Magritte 
 
ENG125: Introduction to Literature  
 How does the language and other literary elements convey a specific representation of the Vietnam War?    What are dominant metaphors and imagery and what do they symbolize? 
 
What is Reader-Response Theory? 
 
This approach views “literature” not as an artifact upon a printed page but as a transaction between the text and individual reader. It regards reading, like writing, as a creative process. This theory holds that there is no objective, outside meaning in any text.  According to Kennedy and Gioia (1995), reader response criticism focuses on “religious, cultural, and social values affect readings; it also overlaps with gender criticism in exploring how men and women read the same text with different assumptions.”  
 
In other words, readers bring their own thoughts, views, experiences and attitudes to the text and interpret the story through a personal lens.  This critical theory is often used to discuss a text in a classroom setting where students are supposed to provide their own insights on the literature read.  
 
Example:  You can easily apply this theory to “The Things They Carried.”  For instance, if you have experienced war, you can discuss it in relation to how O’Brien represents war.  If you were raised in the 1970s during the Vietnam War, you can reflect on your memory of that time period and use it to find meaning in the story.  If you have personal and religious ideas of war, you can use that to interpret the text.  Key questions a Reader Response critic asks:   How does the interaction between the text and reader create meaning?   How do the images and language in the work influence or affect the reader?  What shapes our knowledge of reading, what is our purpose of reading and how does that influence how we read a particular story, poem or novel? 
The Reading, Frederico Zandomeneghi 
 
ENG125: Introduction to Literature  
 
 
What is Psychological Theory? 
 
Based on the theories of Freud and Jung, this criticism centers on the psychology of the characters and analyzes character motivation, behavior and actions.  If you can figure out the protagonist’s psychology, then you can use that to interpret the text.  There are three main offshoots of this critical theory:  
 
 It examines “the creative process of the artist: what is the nature of literary genius and how does it relate to normal mental functions?” (Kennedy & Gioia, 1995)   It investigates the psychology of particular writer usually focusing how an author’s biographical situations affect or influence their motivations and/or selection of theme and use of literary techniques.  It analyzes fictional characters using the concepts, terms and methods of psychological theories.  
 
Example: To apply this theory to O’Brien’s short story you can ask explore the narrator’s psychology in the face of war; How does the Vietnam War influence, both negatively and positively, his psychology?  What does the soldiers’ behavior reveal about the psychological stresses of war?  Key questions a psychological critic asks:   What does the work suggest about the psychological aspects of the author?   Does the work have any hidden meanings, or subconscious elements that help to interpret the work?   How can characters’ actions be explained using theories of fear or attraction to death, or using the struggle between the id, ego and the superego?  
 
ENG125: Introduction to Literature  
What is New Historicism Analysis? 
 
Here, you research the historical time period and discuss the work within its historical context.  As Kennedy and Gioria (1995) indicate, this theory “seeks to understand a literary work by investigating the social, cultural, and intellectual context that produced it—a context that necessarily includes the ar tist’s biography and milieu.”  The text serves as a “retelling of history” and might provide a radically different viewpoint that what is commonly known about an event, era and/or person.  
 
Example: To analyze O’Brien, you’d research the Vietnam War, or a specific battle of that war, and analyze the story using historical fact and detail. Key questions a New Historicism critic asks:   How does the portrayal criticize the event and the political figures around it?   How does the text change meaning when read by a different generation that experiences different kinds of war?   What language/characters/events/setting reflect the current events, political and cultural, of the author’s time period?  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ancient text written in Latin 
 
ENG125: Introduction to Literature  
References 
 
X.J. Kennedy, X.J. & Gioia, D.  (1995) Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama, Sixth Edition.  New York: HarperCollins. 
 
All images are gathered from Creative Commons. 
 
 

Share your thoughts on Napoleon’s claims that he and the French were model Muslims. What was he trying to accomplish? What did he assume about Middle Eastern culture?

Answer must be at least 250words.  Answer must be in Microsoft Word and must be an original answer no plagiarism.  Primary postings should include either a concise summary of information or an analysis of the topic under study.  Please don’t use long quotations.  Please note within the text of your discussion posting where you got your information.  Outside research should be academic in nature and come from reputable peer reviewed sources.  You must include two references with your posting cited in APA style.   Question 1, Question 2, and Question 3 will all be answered separately and be at least 250 words each.
Question 1 Share your thoughts on Napoleon’s claims that he and the French were model Muslims. What was he trying to accomplish? What did he assume about Middle Eastern culture? 
Question 2 Discuss the “Westernization” of the Ottoman Empire. Why do you think a country that is so fiercely proud of its religion, culture, and history seeks to mimic Western institutions?
Question 3 Discuss the term ‘nationalism.’ What are its benefits? What are its disadvantages? 

DESCRIBE THE STEPS INVOLVED IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL PLAN (HACCP) PLAN.

The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Plan (HACCP) is a system used to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Preventing problems from occurring is the paramount goal underlying any HACCP system. The principles employed in the development of HACCP plans meet the goal of preventing foodborne illnesses.
In a PowerPoint presentation of 5-10 slides, describe the history and application of the HACCP system, addressing the following:

Provide a brief history of HACCP.
Describe the steps involved in the development and implementation of a HACCP plan.
What are the advantages of using HACCP rather than traditional food safety programs in retail food establishments?
Describe critical control points and critical limits as they are used in HACCP programs and what happens when there is a deviation.
Why is monitoring an important step in the HACCP system?

You are required to use a minimum of three additional references in preparing your presentation.
APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE KEY PHILOSOPHIES OF THE COUNSELING PROFESSION: WELLNESS, RESILIENCE, AND PREVENTION?

Overview
Counseling professionals from different specializations frequently need to work together to provide effective services to students, families, and individual clients. This assignment asks you to address this need in two parts, using what you have learned in this course so far. In Part 1, focus on theory and concepts, creating your own description and evaluation of your specialization, based on the historical and philosophical development of the counseling profession. In Part 2, apply these ideas to a particular case situation, focusing on how a professional in your specialization might collaborate with professionals in other specializations to help meet the needs of the client.
Directions
Part 1
Evaluate the role of your specialization within the field of counseling, beginning with your own description of the field itself, including both the history and the philosophies involved, explaining where your specialization fits, and describing how your specialization might collaborate with one other specialization that you describe. Cite the articles or other sources you use for the basis of your ideas.
In this part, specifically address the following questions:

How would you describe the key philosophies of the counseling profession: wellness, resilience, and prevention? Choose a wellness model, and explain how that model impacts the way in which counselors view clients and the concerns brought to counseling, including the kinds of information counselors need to have about their clients.
How have those key philosophies developed? Provide a brief historical perspective of the counseling profession focused on the key philosophies of wellness, resilience, and prevention. Include the beliefs and assumptions that support those philosophies.
How did your specialization develop? Identify your preferred counseling specialization and describe how the specialization emerged or the profession developed, including the key ideas on which it is based.
What other counseling specialization works well in collaboration with your specialization? Briefly explain the history of how this other specialization developed, highlighting the ways in which it complements yours.

Part 2
Now, select one of the following two cases, either Ashley or Paul, as a foundation for illustrating how professionals in different specializations might work together to meet the needs of the client you choose:
Ashley
Ashley, a 12-year-old girl, admits to one of her teachers that she feels very depressed. Her mother has recently remarried, and Ashley is having difficulty adjusting to life with her stepfather and his two children. She is not able to concentrate in class or do her homework.
Paul
Paul, a 32-year-old man, seeks counseling at a community mental health center. He has recently returned from his third deployment to a combat zone. He reports drinking frequently and feeling anxious. Paul’s wife has tried to reassure him that everything is fine, but he is reluctant to leave the house and has missed more than a week of work.
For this part, apply what you have learned about counseling and how professionals can work together to explain how you might collaborate with a professional in another specialization to serve the client you chose.
In this part, complete the following:

Analyze how professionals from your specialization and from the other specialization you examined in Part 1 might collaborate to benefit the person and family in the case study you chose.

Describe the role and function of each of the professionals involved.
Identify the characteristics that make each role unique and make them effective counselors for this case.

Assess how to ensure good collaboration and communication between the professionals representing the two specializations.

Identify the type of outside agency that could assist this client to promote optimal wellness, providing two examples.
Explain the standards or criteria that you would use to evaluate the collaboration.

Review the scoring guide given in the resources to make sure you understand how this assignment will be graded.
Other Requirements
Your paper must meet the following requirements:

Resources: Cite at least three resources from the professional literature that you use as the basis of your ideas for Part 1.
APA formatting: Resources and citations must be formatted according to current APA style.
Font and Font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.
Length of Paper: Doing a thorough job on this assignment is likely to require approximately 3–4 typed, double-spaced pages.
Turnitin: You are required to submit your final version of this paper to Turnitin to generate a final report prior to submitting the assignment for grading. From the Turnitin tool, first submit to the draft link to check your work for any necessary edits. Once the paper is finalized and all edits have been made, submit your final paper to the Final report option for the assignment. Please be advised it can take up to a day to obtain the percentage from Turnitin. When your paper is downloaded and viewable in Turnitin, save the originality report. Refer to the Turnitin Tutorial: Viewing an Originality Report (linked in the Resources) for guidance.

Submit your assignment using the following file naming format: Your Name_AssignmentNumber_Assignment Title (example: Ima_Learner_u06a1_CounselingSpecialization).
In the comment section, provide the percentage from the final Turnitin report (example: Final Turnitin percentage = 4%). Please be prepared to provide your faculty member with a copy of the Turnitin report should this be requested of you.

What does the strategy, mission, and organizational structure say about the company?

Instructions
Implementation Plan: Part 1 

For Part 1, describe the company that you selected, the products/services they offer, and the history of the company. Next, analyze the company’s strategy, mission, and organizational structure.

In your analysis, include the following: 
1. What does the strategy, mission, and organizational structure say about the   company? 
2. What are the positive aspects of the strategy, mission, and organizational   structure? 
3. What are the company’s short-term and long-term goals? 
4. What are ways to improve the strategy, mission, and organizational       structure? 

Much of the information you will need to complete this  segment can be found   in the case study in the textbook. However, you are welcome to conduct further   outside research as needed. Some details, such as the  short-term and long-term goals, may not be explicitly stated. Please use your best judgement and   analytical skills to determine that information. 
Your project must be a minimum of two full pages in  length, not including the title and reference pages. Include an introduction  paragraph. 

WHAT ARE THE MODERN FEATURES OF SCIENCE? STEMATIC EMPIRICISM, SCIENTIFIC APPROACH, PUBLIC KNOWLEDGE.

You will read the text  pages that I request. For this assignment read pages 36.1-40.2  the  specified pages you will need to complete the assignment will be added to this posting as an attachment. You will then provide a detailed outline of the material and a personal summary or impression of what was covered. The detailed outline will be a minimum of 3 pages. Be sure to include text content that is located in “call out areas” or boxes in the text. Answer must be in Microsoft Word and must be an original answer no plagiarism. There will be no plagiarism!!! Indicate the page numbers you’ve outlined in the subject line of your post. I’ve posted an example of what the teacher expects. You have to use this format and Quick Note: You will notice that the textbook assigned to this class uses Wikipedia as a resource. However, I want to point out that you should not use Wikipedia as a source for your coursework. Here’s an article discussing the limitations of Wikipedia. 
http://www.findingdulcinea.com/news/education/2010/march/The-Top-10-Reasons-Students-Cannot-Cite-or-Rely-on-Wikipedia.html
Example: Science in the Social Sciences
The textbook begins with a quote from Albert Einstein: “Science is the attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense-experience correspond to a logically uniform system of thought” (p. 5).
– Truth is not created. It is discovered. Science is an organized attempt to discover truth.
The book clarifies the 3 main categories of science:
1) Natural: study of natural phenomena (cosmological, geological, chemical, biological, etc.)
2) Formal: study of math and logic that use an a priori, rather than factual, methodology (basically, a priori is knowledge that we have and can apply , rather than needing to measure something to gain knowledge about it)
3) Social: study of human behavior and sciences
Einstein was a theoretical physicist; this falls under formal sciences. He did not like things that were unpredictable an he was bothered by chaos. He tried to find ways to predict the unpredictable.
In this class:
We are interested in social sciences, and in particular how that knowledge can be applied to help systems of all sizes. Human services apply methods and findings from social science to improve the lives of people (individuals, groups – such as families, and larger social context – communities).
At the same time, all sciences have a lot in common. The textbook discusses the example of chaos theory. Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics (which is a science itself). Chaos theory deals with conditions where prediction is not possible.
– Chaotic diversity describes things on the quantum level and the human condition
– Chaos theory has implications when working with people; this was recently realized
– Human Services dislike chaos; we want to explain, possibly predict, and prevent human misery
* We can take another look at Einstein’s quote: “Science is the attempt to make the chaotic diversity of our sense-experience correspond to a logically uniform system of thought” (p. 5).
He is telling us:
– we have a rich and imaginative sensory capacity that provides us with a vast way of experiencing and interpreting our world
– at the same time (from an evolutionary standpoint) our sensory capacity is built for survival in the heat of the moment, rather than cool calculation of empirical analysis
– Things like intuition and instinct are useful, but we can add science to our toolbox. Through science, we can explore our world in a way to test our assumption and theories. Science helps us increase our rational understanding of the world.
Who talks more? 
Knowledge through theories/assumptions vs Knowledge through Science
Many people believe that women tend to talk more than men.
– Some have suggested the difference has a biological basis
– One estimated that’s often cited is that women spoke 20,000 words p/day and men spoke 7,000 words p/day.
– The claim seemed plausible, and a group of psychologists decided to find out if it was true. What did they do?
1) Checked the literature to see if anyone had actually counted (no one had). Instead, they just found theories and assumptions that were often based on cultural stereotypes
2)  Conducted a research study with 369 men and women. They concluded men and women speak roughly the same amount.
* This study is used as an example to show that research can show us that sometimes what we think is true, really isn’t.
* Why is this important in the field of Human Services?
– Because what we believe about people, and how they behave, is fundamental to effectively work with clients. What we believe can sometimes be wrong, inaccurate, or incomplete.
– We should keep in mind as professionals, whenever possible, to act according to the best information that we have on hand. This means we need to be informed as to what science has empirically indicated.
Understanding Science
Science and Human Services
Human Services is a profession, rather than a science. It draws on our profession’s research, as well as the research of colleagues in other disciplines such as social work, anthropology, sociology, education, etc. So, Human Services is interdisciplinary. 
– Some disciplines are considered social science (like psychology) and some are considered professions (like Human Services)
– We are all engaged in research to find the best methods for helping the human condition
– Human Service professionals engage in the research process; human services practice should be based on empirical research whenever possible.
Empirically Based Research
This is considered a best practice, and Human Service practitioners should try to only use techniques, methods, and approaches that are empirically derived.
Empirically based practice means using quality research from peer reviewed sources in your professional practice. How?
– professional journals
– online databases
– continuing education
– assessing the results of your practice in an ethical way
The Emergence of Science and the Scientific Method
The scientific method is “a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.” (according to Oxford Dictionaries Online)
– The method has expanded from the natural sciences into social sciences to include disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, social work, and Human Services.
A few important people in the emergence of science. Throughout history, people have struggled to make this unpredictable and sometimes dangerous place more tolerable and predictable.
– Francis Bacon (1561 – 1626): considered first person to conceptualize scientific method
– Galileo (1564 – 1642)
– Copernicus (1473 – 1543)
– Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle
– Knowledge has been gained slowly, but it accumulates over the years. 
– The scientific method was just one innovation, but it forms the foundation for all modern research.
We have a legal, moral, and ethical responsibility to our profession, ourselves, society, and our clients to use science. 
* while not all Human Service practitioners are engages in research, all practitioners are consumers of research in their personal and professional lives.
What are the Modern Features of Science?
1) Systematic Empiricism
2) Scientific Approach
3) Public Knowledge
1) Systematic Empiricism: learning based on observation.
– Scientists learn about the world by carefully planning observations, making observations, recording observations, and analyzing those observations
– A lot of what we know (which may or may not be true) is acquired haphazardly
– Within science, logical reasoning and creativity play important roles. Scientists are unique in their insistence on checking ideas about the way the world seems to be .
– Instead of knowledge through tradition, superstition, guessing, etc., science uses systematic observation to gain knowledge. Look at the “Who Talks More” example; the researchers did not trust other people’s stereotypes or their own informal observations. Instead, they systematically recorded, counted, and compared the number of words spoken by a large sample of women and men.
Summary
The textbook discusses the concept of science and how it relates to Human Services. Through discussion and examples, the important role that research plays in Human Services is addressed. Human Service professionals need to understand and utilize research and its scientific principles in order to effectively do their job, and not rely on informal observations, guessing, traditions, etc. for knowledge when working with clients. While Human Service practitioners may not conduct research, it’s crucial to understand how scientific research fits into practice. In my past work experiences, I have used the research of others, as well as conducted my own research, and so I’ve found what is said on these pages to be very true. To better comprehend situations and provide the best services, practitioners need to be able to understand and utilize the concepts of social research.

IN WHAT WAYS WAS EUROPE UNITED IN THE LAST DECADE OF THE 20TH CENTURY?

In what ways was Europe united in the last decade of the 20th century?
Europe became unified through both economic and cultural means in the final decade of the 20thCentury. One of the most important efforts for unification was the European Union (EU), “replacing the European Economic Community as the primary political and economic institution for cooperating European countries” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). The efforts to unify Europe were further advanced in the last decade of the century by the extensive use of communications and information technologies in a technological revolution that saw a transformation that also brought people around the world into closer and quicker contact than ever before” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012).
What were the political implications of European unity?
Many of the countries in Eastern Europe began to adopt new democratic systems of government with elected leadership and new reforms to adjust to free market systems. Likewise, a multitude of new political parties formed, coinciding with an influx of private book publishers, which became greater opportunities to spread new ideas. The political parties that remained communist chose to do so while changing their platforms to include more democratic ideas and distance themselves from the atrocities of Soviet communism, while still advocating for more government control of economic matters. However, a few exceptions still remained, such as Belarus, “which in 2011 remained a command economy under the 17-year dictatorship of Alexander Lukashenko” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012).
What were the social implications of European unity?
As a result of the new efforts to unify, Europe saw a massive influx of immigration which worked to create a much more diverse population than ever before. Additionally, those who were used to the economics of communist governments had to make “adjustments in their cultural lives that were almost as difficult as those in their economic and political lives” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). There were also issues regarding religion in the new Europe with many such as Pope John Paul II arguing that the EU needed to invoke an acknowledgment of Europe’s Christian roots in the proposed draft of an EU constitution. “The debate died out when the constitution failed to be approved in France and the Netherlands, although the idea that Europe is a ‘Christian’—or Judeo-Christian—place continues to be held by many and informs some of the anti-immigrant political movements that have gained prominence in the 21st century, discussed in further detail later in this chapter” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012).
What were the economic implications of European unity?
“The collapse of Communism and the end of the protected trading bloc COMECON left the economies of the former Soviet Union and its former satellites exposed to entirely new conditions” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). One of the approaches to solving the issues that arose after introducing a subsidized socialist society into a free market capitalist system was the ‘shock’ or ‘big bang’ approach which “included such measures as ending price controls, abolishing subsidies for companies, and privatizing state-owned businesses” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). The unemployment numbers took a hit as well during the 1990’s in Eastern Europe in many places that had guaranteed lifelong positions for many before the collapse.
In what ways was Europe divided in the last decade of the 20th century?
Along with concerns over the inclusion of Judeo-Christian values, “immigration, and especially the presence of growing numbers of Muslims, provoked many expressions of concern that ‘European values’ were being threatened” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). These concerns only worked to create greater lines of division among the new European countries and the efforts of the European Union as well as concerns over the new possible threat of globalization. Globalization is “the increasing integration of the global economy, as measured by international trade, investment, and manufacturing, made possible by the political predominance of policies favorable to the free operation of market forces” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). In essence, globalization was the unforeseen aftershock that followed the collapse of communism and the unification of Europe, which in itself presented the world with a whole new line of contention and controversial ideologies.
How did the Cold War contribute to these divisions?
The Cold War progressed many of the same ideas of the loss of traditional values, playing into the idea that Soviet Communist ideals would tear down the fabric of capitalist nations such as the United States and the democratic societies it aided in contributing to the free world market. Likewise, many of the communist states were wary of swapping over to capitalist ideas and systems after being subjected to so many years of relentless anti-capitalist propaganda from the Soviets and their predecessors for over a hundred years.
What role did nationalism and genocide play in Europe during the last decade of the 20thcentury?
Genocide played a role in the last decade of the 20th century through wars, as nations sought to establish new regimes after the collapse of communism and the disestablishment of the Soviet Union. Many satellite nations were able to peacefully move out of communist-ruled regimes, however, there were much more violent conflicts such when the six federal republics of Yugoslavia broke apart. The “six distinct federal republics (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Macedonia, and Montenegro) with five different ethnicities, four languages, three religions, and two alphabets” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012), were engrained with rising feelings of nationalism and violent conflicts broke out between the differing ethnicities. Croatia declared its independence in 1991 and the primarily Muslim Bosnia did the same in 1993. “The war that followed involved fighting among all three ethnic groups, and it was repeatedly marked by what became known as ethnic cleansing as Serbs and Croats both expelled hundreds of thousands of their enemies from Bosnian regions after winning control of them. Similar ethnic cleansing had marked the Serbian-Croatian war as well, and it was accompanied in both regions by numerous instances of murder, rape, and torture”, and “all sides in the war were guilty of atrocities, and both Croats and Serbs established notorious concentration camps. But the Serbs were generally viewed as especially guilty in this regard” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). Furthermore, ethnic wars such as those seen during the collapse of Yugoslavia exemplified and book-ended the new scourge of the 20th century: terrorism. “When Princip assassinated the Archduke, he was acting on behalf of the goals and objectives of a group known as the Black Hand. The Black Hand was, really, a terrorist group driven by intense nationalist sentiments but not acting on behalf of or for a specific government. Therefore, the Western world was faced with the dilemma of what to do when you are the victim of terrorism. How do you declare war on a nation or government when the terrorist group was acting independently? If you do not declare war on the government, then how do you effectively fight shadows?” (Troxler, 2018). This understanding of the nature of terrorist acts of violence, as seen during the ethnic cleansings in the former Yugoslavia, make it difficult for nations to know when and how it is appropriate to intervene in such conflicts.w
Did the collapse of communism have a positive or negative impact on Europe in the last decade of the 20th century? Why?
For the most part, the collapse of communism created a positive and progressive path forward for Europe leading into the 21st century. “With the collapse of communism across central and eastern Europe, Europeans become closer neighbors. In 1993 the Single Market is completed with the ‘four freedoms’ of: movement of goods, services, people and money” (Eu ropean Union, 2018). “The collapse of Communism ended the division of Europe and allowed unification to reach into new areas of the continent” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012). Likewise, with the collapse of Communism, “everything changed… Mentalities had to change. Publishers had to become responsive to the market. Authors used to having their works printed and reprinted, found themselves unemployed. Foreign films and books flooded the cultural market. Intellectuals, including those who had been critical of communism, were aghast. They had moved from the dictatorship of the party to the true ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’: consumer capitalism” (Shubert & Goldstein, 2012), after the initial shock, however, these new forms of free expression played a heavy role in bringing many cultures together through the new freedoms of cultural expression and economics.
References
European Union. (2018). Europe without frontiers. Retrieved From https://europa.eu/european-union/about-eu/history/1990-1999_en (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Shubert, A. & Goldstein, R.J. (2012). Twentieth-century Europe [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Troxler, S., (2018). Week 5 lecture: the modern age. Retrieved from https://ashford.instructure.com/courses/35857/discussion_topics/1049114

EXAMINE THE RULE OF LAW IN THE AMERICAN COURT SYSTEM AND IN THE JUDICIAL PROCESS.

Week 3 Case Study 1 Submission 
 
Click the link above to submit your assignment.
Students, please view the “Submit a Clickable Rubric Assignment” in the Student Center.
Instructors, training on how to grade is within the Instructor Center.
 
Case Study 1: Understanding the Court System
Due Week 3 and worth 200 points
The U.S. Court System is a complex system that includes both federal  and state-level courts. The federal system includes the judicial branch  of the government. This system is designed to help society interpret the  U.S. Constitution and provide guidelines for society. Court cases may  concern many different topics and have an unlimited number of outcomes.
Use the Internet or Strayer databases to research a civil or criminal court case in which you are interested.
Write a five to eight (5-8) page paper in which you:

Summarize the seminal facts of the case that you chose.
Explain the main laws that have been violated in the case that you chose.
Describe the possible penalties that could be associated with the laws that you just described.
Explain whether your specific case was heard in the state or  federal court system, and include any related jurisdictional  requirements. Explain the fundamental reasons why it was necessary for  the case to be heard in that particular court system.
Summarize the outcome of the case, and indicate whether the judge or jury made the decision.
Discuss whether or not you believe that the outcome of the case was justified. Provide a rationale for the response.
Use at least (3) quality academic resources. Note: Wikipedia and other websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

This course requires use of Strayer Writing Standards (SWS).  The format is different than other Strayer University courses. Please  take a moment to review the SWS documentation for details. 
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the  student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date.  The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required  assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Examine the organizational frameworks and decision-making environment in the judicial process.
Examine the rule of law in the American court system and in the judicial process.
Detail the history and organization of the levels of the American court system and the issue of jurisdictional boundaries.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in the criminal court and the judicial process in America.
Write clearly and concisely about the American court system using proper writing mechanics and SWS style conventions.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing

EXPLAIN WHAT PROJECT MANAGEMENT IS, AND HOW IT EVOLVED OVER TIME.

Write 400–600 Words That Respond To The Following Questions With Your Thoughts, Ideas, And Comments. Be Substantive And Clear, And Use Examples To Reinforce Your Ideas.

Role of Project Management
In the race for a competitive advantage, today’s organizations are often tasked with multiple large in-house and outsourcing responsibilities when it comes to project management.

Read the brief history of project management from this Web site.
Then, respond to the following:

Explain what project management is, and how it evolved over time.
Explain at least 1 thing that has surprised you about the field of project management.