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define the nurse’s scope of practice as described by the ANA

define the nurse’s scope of practice as described by the ANA. You will also define the nurse’s scope of practice in your own state/country(OHIO) Next, you will explain a clinical scenario that demonstrates how you have applied this scope of practice successfully (from start to finish – a complete example for full credit). Finally, you will explain why all nurses should have a functional knowledge of their own nurse practice act. This assessment is aligned with the course objective 3 and the module objectives. Please organize your discussion board as follows:

Paragraph 1: Introduce your discussion board with a general statement about the discussion board, then a purpose statement. A purpose statement starts with: The purpose of this posting is to discuss . . . . then the key elements of what you are going to discuss. This paragraph should define the nurse’s scope of practice as defined by the American Nurses Association. This will cover the objective of: Define the nurse’s scope of practice as defined by the American Nurses Association.

Paragraph 2: You will also define the nurse’s scope of practice in your own state. This will vary between states. This will cover the objective of: Define the nurse’s scope of practice as defined by that nurse’s own state’s nursing law.

Paragraph 3: Next, you will explain a clinical scenario that demonstrates how you have applied this scope of practice successfully (from start to finish complete example). Finally, you will explain why all nurses should have a functional knowledge of their own nurse practice act. End the paragraph with a conclusion sentence or two that summarizes your thoughts.

* MINIMUM OF 200 WORDS8

* REQUIRED BOOK – Ethics and Issues in Contemporary Nursing by Burkhardt & Nathaniel it has to be Cengage Learning,2013 4th edition

2013, at least one reference must come from this book for intext citation and reference

* i have attached a copy of the rubric please follow exact rubric for this post or it will not be accepted

paper has to be done acording to these instructions as well as the refrence to be accepted anything that does not follow this will not be accepted thank you

Type I is when the researcher claims the level of efficacy was met when actually it wasn’t. This is the alpha probability of flaws/errors in statistics, according to Houser (2018).

Number 1

Type I is when the researcher claims the level of efficacy was met when actually it wasn’t. This is the alpha probability of flaws/errors in statistics, according to Houser (2018).  This is a serious error in which the researcher claims results to be effective without mitigating the probability of uncontrolled variables. Potentially, this type of error could be lethal if the research directly impacts the person such as in drug therapy. The higher the probability of error the less valid the study. According to Houser, the acceptable alpha rate is a level of significance less than 0.05.

Type II error is the beta or statistical testing power in statistics (Houser, 2018). This is when the researcher reports there were no impacts or outcomes of the treatment or problem statement when actually there were. One of the ways to mitigate this error is to insure a large enough sample size. The researcher does not acknowledge there were findings to the intervention in the study.

To maintain the integrity of internal validity is to have a solid design study. The researcher should be proactive in mitigating any potential barriers or outcomes by identifying a plan to mitigate their influences. One way doing this is to have solid selection of the participants. The researcher could inject bias into the study by means of the selection process. An example of this would be when picking participants to fit into a too narrowed of a testing group or too broad. Professionally, I encountered this issue recently regarding a Hep C medication with one of my patients. He is a TBI patient and the study on this particular drug does not include TBI population, yet the drug is still being used. Could this be a question in the internal validity regarding treatment of the published data? From the nursing perspective I would question the validity of the drug and its published side effects.

Overall, there are other factors in maintain internal validity such as consents, attrition, instruments used, and historical effects are some factors to consider.

 

 

Houser, J. (2018). The importance of research as evidence in nursing. In Nursing research reading, using, and creating evidence (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Grand Canyon University. (2017, October 26). NUR 504: Week 6 | Descriptive, Inferential, and Multivariate Statistics [on line]. Retrieved from https://lc-grad3.gcu.edu/learningPlatform

Number 2

Type I and type II errors are errors that involve the null hypothesis. A null hypothesis is “a hypothesis stating no relationship between the variables under study; used primarily in statistical testing as the hypothesis to be rejected” (Polit & Beck, 2017). Type I error is when researchers discover a false positive or they have rejected the null hypothesis even though it is actually true. A type II error is when researchers do not reject the null hypothesis even though the alternate hypothesis is the correct one. This is known as a false negative. When errors occur, they cause the research and results to be misleading.

The researcher is responsible for looking at all the data and establishing the risk of error. If there is a type I error, then looking at medications affecting a disease, the researcher would say the drug helps with the disease. In reality, the drug does not kill the disease at all. In a type II error, it would be opposite of a type I error. The researchers would conclude that the drug had no affect on the disease when it actually would kill it.

The researcher must test their data throughly and validate their results. Researchers must accept the results of their studies, instead of working to try and validate their hypothesis. When they validate their statistical data, they are making sure there is the least amount of errors possible.

Reference:

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Number 3

Type I errors are equivalent to false positives. It encompasses the denunciation of a null hypothesis that is actually true. It occurs when we are observing a difference when in truth there is none. Meaning there is no statistically significant difference.

A type II errors are equivalent to false negative. It is a statistical term used within the framework of hypothesis testing that describes the error that occurs when one accepts a null hypothesis that is actually false.  This is the error of failing to accept an alternative hypothesis when you don’t have adequate power.  Meaning, it occurs when we are failing to observe a difference when in truth there is one. The error rejects the alternative hypothesis, although it does not occur due to chance. A type II error fails to remove, or accepts, the null hypothesis, although the alternative hypothesis is the true state of nature. The chance of getting type II error can be decrease, by increasing the sample size (Polit & Beck 2017).

Type I and type II errors are part of the process of hypothesis testing. Although the errors cannot be eliminated, we can minimize one type of error. When conducting a hypothesis test, the probability, or risks, of making a type I error or type II error should be considered.

Name one thing that can be done to improve internal validity of a study.

Internal validity refers to how well an experiment is done, especially whether it avoids more than one possible cause acting at the same time. The less chance for this to happen in a study, the higher its internal validity is. Internal validity can be improved in a few simple ways. One way is for investigators to use single and double-blind techniques. A single-blind study is where the participant does not know the condition they are in, and double-blind is where neither the participant nor the experimenter knows what the  groups represent. This method ensures there is little demand characteristics, such as trying to behave a certain way because they think that is what is expected of them, and decreases researchers’ effects, as they cannot even accidently have a bias to a certain group.

Polit, D., & Beck, C. (2017). Nursing research. Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). [Grand Canyon University Digital Resources]. Retrieved from:

https://viewer.gcu.edu/E7ePxX

Number 4

A Type I error is when you reject the null hypothesis even if it is true (false positive) and a Type II error is when the null hypothesis is not true and is accepted (false negative/ failing to reject).

Example:

Type I error:   When a person does not have breast cancer, yet the mammogram says she does.

Type II error:  When a person does have breast cancer, yet the mammogram fails to pick it up.

These errors are important because sometimes, by chance alone, a sample is not representative of the population.  Then the results of the sample does not reflect the reality in the population, and the random error leads to an erroneous inference (Banerjee, Chitnis, Jadhay, Bhawalkar & Chaundhury, 2009).

Internal validity refers to the extent to which it is possible to make an inference that the independent variable, rather than another factor, is truly causing variation in the dependent variable (Polit & Beck, 2015).  Having a strong framework and being open about all the biases that can arise is an important factor in improving internal validity.  Basically, “covering all your bases” and having a “plan B”.  Often, researchers identify the research problem and then go in search of a theory.  I think if they also studied the cause and then the effect, they would see all possible tangents occurring from the research.

Reference

Banerjee, A., Chitnis, U., Jadhay, S., Bhawalkar, J., and Chaundhury, S. (2009). Hypothesis testing, type 1 and type 11 errors. Industrial Psychiatry Journal. 18(2), 127-131. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2996198/

Polit, D & Beck, C. (2012).  Nursing research:  Generating and assessing evidence for nursing

practice.  Philadelphia, PA:  Lippincott Willians & Wilkins

Describe resources necessary for preparation for the Certified Nurse Educator (CNE) exam.

WebQuest – CNE References

Purpose

The purpose of this WebQuest is to promote active learning and engagement of a real world situation as you gain new knowledge and understanding of concepts vital to your ongoing success as a nurse educator.

Introduction

Upon completion you will have a document containing a list of reliable and valid online resources you chose related to the preparation to successfully become a certified nurse educator.

The learning outcomes for this WebQuest.

  • Describe resources necessary for preparation for the Certified Nurse Educator (CNE) exam.
  • Recommend evidence based teaching strategies for a diverse student population.
  • Identify evidence based teaching strategies aligned with the eight core competencies of a nurse educator.

Resources

To help you complete the WebQuest, these resources are provided.

  • Discussion AreaAn ungraded discussion area is provided for you to share informal conversation with classmates regarding the assignment in Unit 5. Collaboration is encouraged as you work through the requirements of the assignment. Share and learn together. Rules of netiquette apply. The instructor will monitor the conversation in this area but not respond in the discussion forum. This is not a graded discussion.
  • Kaplan Online Library
    • EduCause Review
    • International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
    • Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing
    • Journal of Nursing Education
    • Journal of Professional Nursing
    • Nursing Education Perspectives
    • Nurse Educator
    • Teaching in Higher Education

Task

Kelly, a new faculty member who recently completed a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) with a focus on Nursing Education, has been an instructor on a team of nursing instructors for six months. Details about Kelly’s work environment include:

  • The faculty team working with Kelly is comprised of four instructors with experience ranging from two to 15 years.
  • One faculty member Edith, the longest residing member of the nursing faculty has a PhD, one faculty member has a DNP and has only been on the team 6 months longer than Kelly, and the remaining two faculty members have a MSN: Manny acting as the simulation and lab coordinator for the past four years and Andre, a staff nurse at the local hospital on joint appointment with the School of Nursing.
  • The program is a prelicensure Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) program with a traditional entry for four years and a two year accelerated option.
  • The program has applied for Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education (CCNE) accreditation and expects a visit in six months. Currently the program has provisional accreditation pending the upcoming site visit.

The BSN program recently received a grant supplying funds for the nurse educators on staff to take the certified nurse educator (CNE) exam. No faculty member is currently a CNE. Recently, at a weekly faculty meeting Kelly presented a faculty enrichment program titled: “Prepare for the CNE Exam”. The presentation was a success with the faculty who signed up to take the CNE exam. The Dean was excited and asked Kelly to continue the weekly series regarding CNE preparation. The Dean stated, “Kelley, please compile a list of resources faculty can use to prepare for the CNE exam. Currently I have a list of textbooks and journals from the CNE Candidate Handbook which I have ordered. What I need you to do is locate specific evidence based material which will support development of the faculty related to the eight core competencies of an educator. I would like you to present your findings for the first category of the CNE detailed test blueprint, facilitate learning at the next meeting. Specifically, I want the evidence based findings you select to support development and implementation of teaching strategies which constitutes approximately twenty-five percent of the CNE exam. Remember, I want the faculty to leave the meeting with a list of resources they can use to study.”

Kelley was excited and assured the Dean she would locate what was requested. Kelley identified the outcomes for her presentation which included:

  • Select appropriate evidence based findings to provide scholarly support for these categories of the CNE detailed test blueprint:
    1. Use educational theory based on evidence-based practices related to education.
    2. Implement teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population.
    3. Modify teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population.
    4. Create a positive learning environment that fosters a free exchange of ideas.
    5. Use information technologies to support the teaching-learning process.
    6. Create opportunities for learners to develop their own teaching skills.

Process

  1. Use the assignment template to identify at least one online resource and one article for each category listed below.
  2. Each article selected must be from the list of eight journals provided in the resources area. The eight journals listed are available in the Kaplan online library.
  3. Make sure to save it appropriately (refer to Unit 1 Assignment)

Categories

  1. Use educational theory based on evidence-based practices related to education.
  2. Implement teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population.
  3. Modify teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population.
  4. Create a positive learning environment that fosters a free exchange of ideas.
  5. Use information technologies to support the teaching-learning process.
  6. Create opportunities for learners to develop their own teaching skills.

Each online resource identified must include:

  • a functional link for the resource
  • brief description of the resource including rationale for selection;
  • rationale for accuracy and reliability of the resource
  • authority of the resource including individual or group author clearly stated with credentials or qualification listed and;
  • currency; date of publishing.

Each article selected must include:

  • title of the article;
  • brief description of the article;
  • rationale for selection;
  • currency; date of publishing.
  • APA formatted reference for the resource.

Evaluation

  • Refer to the WebQuest grading rubric

Conclusion

You have now created a resource you can use as a reference for preparation and successful completion of the exam for certification as a nurse educator.

Within the assignment template, respond to these statements:

  1. Discuss aspects of the Assignment you found most enhanced your learning experience.
  2. Discuss aspects of the Assignment you would change to improve the process and the deliverable.
  3. Discuss how you plan to use the resource sheet you created in your future professional roles.
  4. Describe your perceived value of the certification of a nurse educator.

PLEASE USE THIS TEMPLATE BELOW

SCHOOL OF NURSING

MN508: Teaching and Learning Strategies

Unit 5 WebQuest Assignment: CNE Reference

Directions:

Using this assignment template, identify at least one online resource and one article from the list of journals provided in the resources area.

Categories:

1.Use educational theory based on evidence-based practices related to education

2.Implement teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population

3.Modify teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population.

4.Create a positive learning environment that fosters a free exchange of ideas

5.Use information technologies to support the teaching-learning process

6.Create opportunities for learners to develop their own teaching skills

Each online resource identified must include:

●A functional link for the resource

●Brief description of the resource including rationale for selection related to at least one of the four outcomes;

●Rationale for accuracy and reliability of the resource

●Authority of the resource including individual or group author clearly stated with credentials or qualification listed

●Currency; date of publishing

Each article selected must include:

●Title of the article;

●Brief description of the article;

●Rationale for selection;

●Currency; date of publishing.

●APA formatted reference for the resource.

Category: Use educational theory based on evidence-based practices related to education
Online Resource

Link

Brief Description
Reliability
Authority
Currency
Category: Use educational theory based on evidence-based practices related to education
Article Title
Brief Description
Rationale
Date of Publishing
APA Formatted Reference
Category: Implement teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population
Online Resource

Link

Brief Description
Reliability
Authority
Currency
Category: Implement teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population
Article Title
Brief Description
Rationale
Date of Publishing
APA Formatted Reference
Category: Modify teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population
Online Resource

Link

Brief Description
Reliability
Authority
Currency
Category: Modify teaching strategies and learning experiences based on a diverse student population
Article Title
Brief Description
Rationale
Date of Publishing
APA Formatted Reference
Category: Create a positive learning environment that fosters a free exchange of ideas
Online Resource

Link

Brief Description
Reliability
Authority
Currency
Category: Create a positive learning environment that fosters a free exchange of ideas
Article Title
Brief Description
Rationale
Date of Publishing
APA Formatted Reference
Category: Use information technologies to support the teaching-learning process
Online Resource

Link

Brief Description
Reliability
Authority
Currency
Category: Use information technologies to support the teaching-learning process
Article Title
Brief Description
Rationale
Date of Publishing
APA Formatted Reference
Category: Create opportunities for learners to develop their own teaching skills
Online Resource

Link

Brief Description
Reliability
Authority
Currency
Category: Create opportunities for learners to develop their own teaching skills
Article Title
Brief Description
Rationale
Date of Publishing
APA Formatted Reference

Conclusion

You have now created a resource you can use as a reference for preparation and successful completion of the exam for certification as a nurse educator.

Below the worksheet, respond to these statements:

 

1.Discuss aspects of the assignment you found most enhanced your learning experience.

2.Discuss aspects of the assignment you would change to improve the process and the deliverable.

3.Discuss how you plan to use the resource sheet you created in your future professional roles.

4.Describe your perceived value of the certification of a nurse educator?

 

Due by day 7 of Unit 5 Submit the Assignment Template to the DropBox.

To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Home.

 

My desire to further pursue a career in nursing began while working at AtlantiCare Physician Group as a certified medical assistant in a family medicine practice

My desire to further pursue a career in nursing began while working at AtlantiCare Physician Group as a certified medical assistant in a family medicine practice. I worked in a primary care setting for over five years. I truly enjoyed forming relationships with numerous patients and their families, in addition to acquiring clinical experience. Knowingly I wanted more out of a career in healthcare, I decided to go back to school as a pre-nursing student. I felt by going to school and working in the medical field, I was able to help my family at times since the healthcare industry can be confusing, whether insurance or medication related.  I recently was hired in July of 2015 as an emergency room technician within AtlantiCare at their Regional Medical Center. I chose to leave the office setting because I was eager to gain new skills and looked forward to working with acute care patients in an emergency setting. I am now learning about medicine and patient care on a new level ever since I first stepped on to the floor. I believe I have a well rounded skillset from working in family medicine and transitioning to emergency medicine. I am surrounded by wonderful, gifted nurses that I hope to join in the near future. My employment within the medical field is a substantial component to my pursuit in nursing.

However, a specific personal experience made my goal even more so desirable. My father became rapidly and unexpectedly ill in the fall of 2014. He was diagnosed with sepsis after a failed total knee replacement that was implanted just one-year prior. My father, once a strong, independent man, was now suddenly bed bound. I was told on multiple occasions from both doctors and nurses that his “prognosis was guarded” due to the severity of the sepsis. His platelet count and coagulation levels were extremely low, therefore making the revision even more of a risk. He underwent a revision three days after his first hospital admission. The surgeon removed the infected knee prosthesis, irrigated and debrided the surrounding septic tissue, and a new prosthesis was put in place. My father was sent to an acute rehabilitation center a few days later and seemed to be doing better by the day. About two weeks later after his knee revision he became sick once again and was readmitted to the hospital. The sepsis was not under control, which ultimately led to complete organ failure in the course of three months. My father passed away January 3, 2015. Putting grief aside, I dealt with remarkable nurses and health professionals throughout my father’s journey. I admire nurses because of the care they are able to provide to not only patients but their families. I consider this to be an essential component of nursing. Nursing is not just about giving medication and charting, rather it is offering comfort and compassion. This is what motivates me to become a nurse every day.

Nurse Staffing Issues are just the tip of the iceberg: Nurses’ Perceptions of Nurse Staffing

Response Guidelines HJ

Read the posts below and respond, ask questions or provide feedback on the learner’s post. What more would you like to know that was not included in the post? The response below is a summary to a scholarly qualitative research article

 

Your response must be a minimum of 200 words in length. If your response offers an alternative viewpoint or refers to the ideas or work of others, your post must be supported by citing One Scholarly source, using APA formatting.

 

Qualitative Study: Nurse Staffing Issues are just the tip of the iceberg: Nurses’ Perceptions of Nurse Staffing

Action Research

The Authors: (Oostveen, Mathijssen, & Vermeulen, 2015).

Summary

Abstract

The abstract do reflect, and summarizes the key components of the study providing the Aim of the study, as being an in-depth insight into the perceptions of nurses, with respect to current nurse staffing levels, nurse-to-patient ratios (NPR), and patient classification systems (PCS), in the Netherlands. The rationale was made in response to rising health care demands, due to the ageing patient population with increasing complexity in healthcare, motivating hospital boards in implementing nurse-to-patient ratios and PCS’s, in reducing critical levels of staffing at the unit level, which endangers the quality and safety in patient care.

The literature review was comprehensive, and up-to-date as the study dates from 2012 to 2015, and reflect on factors concerning the condition of nurse staffing levels as being inadequate in response to patient care demands, endangering quality patient care. This gave rise to higher mortality rates, and a negative impact on nurses job satisfaction.

The Methodology of study was being identified, and justified, indicating it is a phenomenological qualitative study, from primary sources taken from the Dutch University Hospital specialty departments, and from secondary sources, which includes other nurse advisors, and directors.

Exploration Phase

This descriptive phenomenological qualitative study began its exploration of the problem within a 1000-bed Dutch University hospital among its 24 units from four specialties, which includes (surgery, Internal medicine, neurology, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, and Paediatric care. Data was collected from September through December 2012. There were four focus groups organized for the collection of data (n = 44 nurses). Adding to this number was,  (20 head nurses, 4 nurse directors, and 3 quality advisors) for interviews through purposive sampling. All the interviews were audiotaped, and subjected to thematic analysis. The focus group interviews were conducted, in the last hour of the nursing day shift. (15:00-16:00 PM).

Intervention Phase.

This phase includes action research cycles, emerging as the spirals of the activity, which included the planning of the type of study (qualitative), the chosen place for the study (Netherlands, Dutch University Hospital), Acting cycle, which included data collection between September 2012 and December 2012, involving two researchers, one (CO) who moderated the focus group, and another researcher (HV) who observed, and took notes.  Interviews, which lasted between 30-60 minutes conducted at the location, and time of participant’s choice. This phase also dealt with arising problems from nurses, head nurses, policy advisors, nursing directors on inefficient processes, which keep nurses away from direct patient care, and allow high patient workload, inefficient processes of conflicting interest between different disciplines, nurses not being involve in decision-making concerning strategic goals, and staffing policies, enhancing autonomy, and the quantifying of nursing care. Observing in this phase included the different communication styles, which may cause misunderstandings about what nurses do, and the essence of the message sent, also work ethic, and nurses professional behaviour.

Evaluation Phase

Despite there is no neat end to this phase, however it completes the analysis of the data examining whether change occurred. In this study three main themes were focused on, nursing behaviour, authority, and autonomy. Other much larger problems were being masked underneath. These problems reflect on the position of nurses, which were highly important for nurses’ professionalization, and finally the quality of patient care. Besides nurses being responsible for direct patient care, they are also challenged to take responsibility to improve their work system, and employ adequate communication by the use of facts or evidence. Nurses are also challenged by a lack of authority and autonomy in decision-making. It is left for nursing directors to promote the movement from a basic functional model to a professional model, which would create a work environment that values, and empowers nurses, also generating possibilities for evidence based quality improvement.

This action research method can be used in the field of nursing to first, explore the nature of the problem, and the focus of the type study necessary for resolving the problem, second, it continues to intervene the problem, and thirdly to evaluate the results of the study, assessing its quality for implementation of being a change agent for nurse staffing levels (adequate nurse-to-patient ratios), and patient care satisfaction.

I believe the author chose this study design method for use of its convenient qualities of exploration, intervention, and evaluation of the problem, which eventually could promote change in healthcare practice.

             Ethical approval was not deemed necessary for this study according to the Dutch Law, and Medical Ethics of the Institutional Review Board of the Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam.

The advantages of this approach in this study were; the participants cooperated with the study, as each segment of the study was explored, intervened, and evaluated. which resulted in the support of the all evidence obtained, however the disadvantage was the results were not generalizable as it cannot be used for all other hospitals or hospitals in other countries. The advantage in situations where there is poor knowledge, skills and attitudes to carry out evidence-based practice, the disadvantage is; findings are not generalizable. The approach in this study also saw a disadvantage of being done at only one university hospital in the Netherlands, however there still exist an advantage of the findings being generalized to other Dutch hospitals as they identified the main themes. Another disadvantage in this research was the role of the researchers, which may have allowed influence in the data collection, however the advantage existed of shared experiences being open-faced, and authentic, as the participants assumed the researchers understood and dealt with information with integrity.

 

Van Oostveen, C.J., Mathijssen, E., Vermeulen, H., (2015). Nurse staffing issues are just the tip of the iceberg: A qualitative study about nurses’ perceptions of nurse staffing. International Journal of Nursing Studies: 52(2015) 1300-1309. ProQuest Central

 

 

According to paramount scholars such as Fitzpatrick, Shete, and Richards (n.p), emotional intelligence is the ability of individuals to recognize and manage their emotions as well as those of others.

Read the pears discussions and respond to them with a reference. APA format

Discussion 1

According to paramount scholars such as Fitzpatrick, Shete, and Richards (n.p), emotional intelligence is the ability of individuals to recognize and manage their emotions as well as those of others. Notably, the components of emotional intelligence include social skills, self-regulation, motivation, and self-awareness. This paper seeks to expound on the behaviors a person with self-awareness would illustrate when managing groups and provide an example of the same.

Notably, self-awareness is the capacity of an individual to know his or her emotions, feelings, character, strengths, and weaknesses. One behavior that a person with strong self-realization would demonstrate is confidence (Tyczkowski et al. 175). An individual with strong self-awareness can demonstrate confidence by being assertive and taking courageous steps to make critical decisions within the group they lead. Moreover, a confident manager is open to ideas. Such a leader considers the diverse opinions of other people that will lead to a better decision. By so doing, the subordinates are motivated to cooperate with the leader towards achieving success. For example, when a nurse manager wants to make changes in a particular nursing unit he or she should consider the opinions of other nurses in the department.

Concurrently, persons who possess self-awareness exhibit empathy. Such individuals can understand and relate to the emotions and feelings of the members of the group they are managing. A leader who is empathetic listens to the subordinates and eventually creates a good rapport with them. The relationship builds trust within the group thus, enhancing collaboration and increasing efficiency at work. A person with strong self-awareness comprehends that the decision he or she makes also affects the group he or she is leading (Tyczkowski et al. 175). Sometimes people may be undermined by the decisions of a manager. Thus, the individual should make sure that his/her conclusions do not harm people. For example, a nurse leader with strong self-awareness involves nurses in the decision-making process before making the ultimate decisions to avoid making choices that can affect them.

Remarkably, self-control is another behavior that a person with self- awareness should illustrate when leading and managing a group. The individual should control his or her emotions and moods. Such a leader does not act out of anger, disappointments, and frustration. Instead, if in such situations they wait until they are in control so that they can respond to the case (Fitzpatrick, Shete and Richards n.p). For example, if a nurse makes a mistake, a nurse leader should not shout at the nurse, but should talk to him/her calmly so that he or she can correct the error. As a result, such a leader is more effective and can inspire the group he or she is managing thus, increasing work efficiency.

Additionally, a person with self-awareness is motivated, focused, and ambitious when managing a group. Self-actualized leaders are intrinsically motivated to accomplish their goals (Spano-Szekely et al. 104). For example, a leader who has an ambition of changing the organization, he or she will be motivated to execute jobs within their ability to reach there. Additionally, they utilize their strengths to accomplish their goals. As a result, the person acts as a role model of the group he is leading. To sum up, self-awareness is the cornerstone of leadership because the aspect begins within an individual. In the rear, self-awareness distinguishes ordinary leaders from great leaders.

Works Cited

Fitzpatrick, Lily, Rasika Shete, and Roland Richards. “Emotional Intelligence and Leadership.” (2018).

Spano-Szekely, Lauraine, et al. “Emotional intelligence and transformational leadership in nurse managers.” Journal of Nursing Administration 46.2 (2016): 101-108.

Tyczkowski, Brenda, et al. “Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.’ Nursing administration quarterly 39.2 (2015): 172-180.

Discussion 2

An effective leader is flexible, empathetic, and has an understanding of multiple leadership skills. This leaderships skills also includes having the ability to understand emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence and the skills it requires are important concepts to understand and master in order to become not only a leader but also a nursing leader (Huber, 2014). Self-awareness, an element of emotional intelligence it is the ability of a person to undertones their feelings and emotions, and how these emotions can influence and affect those around them (Huber, 2014). Working as a nurse leader self-awareness means to be aware and understand how your attitude and emotions can influence and affect the employees that you are leading (Huber, 2014)

Someone who encompasses self0awareness would display behaviors such as honesty, fairness, and empathy toward their employees. They would consider input from other before making changes or major decisions and be open to feedback and constructive criticism as well as display a flexible attitude.

An example of a leader-demonstrating these behaviors of self-awareness would be providing in service of their employees that allows the employees to utilize self-assessment tools in order to understand emotional intelligence and self-awareness. The information learned during these in-services would help the employee’s emotional development, followers also need self-awareness so that they can know themselves and their exceptions (Huber, 2014)

Reference

Huber, D., (2010). Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5 th Edition. Saunders: Elsevier

Discussion 3

The definition of self-awareness, as stated in our book by Huber is the “ability to read one’s own emotional state and be aware of one’s own mood and how this affects staff relationships” (Huber, 2014, p. 6). The behaviors of someone with strong self-awareness who is leading and managing groups, would be exhibited in various ways, such as:

Knowing which emotions they are feeling and why; understand the links between their feelings and what they do and say; recognize which feelings affect their performance; by having an awareness of one’s own values and goals; and by drawing appropriate boundaries with others (Gessler & Ferron, 2017). Good leaders should also have strong emotional, interpersonal, and social intelligence skills that will contribute to the effectiveness of their leadership role (Huber, 2014).

For example, a good leader would have employee meetings where discussions and input from the employees is valued. A leader would listen and provide answers that are not lead by emotion, but thought out rational discussions. Consideration involving the input from others before implementing changes would demonstrate good leadership qualities.

Gessler, R., & Ferron, L. (2017, November 27). Making the workplace healthier, one self-aware nurse at a time. Retrieved from https://www.americannursetoday.com/making-the-work…

Huber, Diane. Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition. Saunders, 2014. [Pageburstl].

Discussion 4

Self-awareness is described by Huber as the “ability to read one’s own emotional state and be aware of one’s own mood and how this affects staff relationships” (2014). Behaviors that someone with strong self-awareness may demonstrate within the context of leading and managing groups would include active listening, self-control, honesty, and empathy. Active listening and empathy are crucial aspects of having emotional intelligence and practicing self-awareness when leading and managing groups. Leader’s need followers and followers will only follow direction if they feel they are valued and being listened to. Self-awareness includes the ability to control one’s own emotions to make rational decisions which benefit everyone.

An example of active listening, empathy, self-control, and honesty in action when leading and managing a group may happen during a staff meeting. Having an environment in which staff can be honest with each other while exhibiting active-listening and empathy is important to maintain a positive working environment. Someone with a strong sense of self-awareness would simultaneously be listening, showing empathy, being honest, and controlling their emotions in regard to the subjects being discussed.

Huber, D. (2014). Leadership and nursing care management. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/

Discussion 5

Self-awareness is the ability to read one’s own emotional state and be aware of one’s own mood and how this affects staff relationships (Huber; 2014).

Self-awareness includes understanding personal limitations and acknowledging what still needs to be learned. Self-awareness also involves recognizing the strengths and fatal flaws in others to build a high performing team where all members complement each other and maximize the whole. (Shirey; 2015)

A person with self-awareness empathetic and area able to understand that the way they react to stress also affects the way their team will react. A leader with self-awareness is able to identify their strengths and weaknesses and how they impact others. They will ask for input on what they could have done better, plan their day to help prevent being stressed, and are devoted to their practice (Shirey; 2015)

Huber, D. (2014). Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145574…

Shirey, M. (2015). Enhance your self-awareness to be an authentic leader. Retrieved from https://www.americannursetoday.com/enhance-self-aw…

Discussion 6

Self-awareness is the ability to read “one’s emotional state and be aware of one’s mood and how this affects staff relationships” (Huber, 2014, p. 3). Someone with strong self-awareness behaviors would display an understanding of their feelings. By knowing this, they can understand what triggers them to upset or angry. This is important for those in management and leadership positions as they deal with individuals from different perspectives and ideas.

A manager and leader have to be able and willing to listen to the other person’s concerns or ideas so that they can apply them to their work environment. Another characteristic is knowing their limit. If the manager or leader is feeling tired or overwhelmed, it is essential for them to take a break. Because if they don’t, they are putting themselves at risk for being short tempered, and projecting their emotions, onto someone else. Other characteristics include values, confidence in their employees, and a sense of security (Huber, 2014).

For example, a good leader will display confidence in who they are as a leader. They will be aware of one’s mood and know when to take a break or “fix” their attitude before they cause conflict with one of their employee’s. A good leader will also display a sense of security. Also, a good leader will listen to what their employee’s input and consider their request, as well as consider their own beliefs and make a final decision based on what will benefit their work environment and coworkers. A leader and manager should be the ones to promote a comfortable and safe environment, where they can share their concerns, ideas, and ultimately, just be themselves.

Reference

Huber, D. (2014). Leadership and Management Principles. Leadership and Nursing Care Management, 5th Edition. [Pageburstl]. Retrieved from https://pageburstls.elsevier.com/#/books/978145574…

Compare and contrast the roles of the Nurse Practitioner, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Certified Nurse Midwife, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist, and other emerging roles in advanced practice nursing pertaining to the 7 Core Competencies: direct clinical practice, guidance and coaching, consultation, evidence-based practice, leadership, collaboration, ethical decision making

Assignment #6 – Final Assignment: Advanced Practice Roles (30%) due by midnight onSeptember 2nd, 2017

The final assignment will synthesize what you have discovered about the different advanced practice roles and scope of practice for Advanced Practice Nurses. You will review all roles and then examine the specialty for which you were admitted into the program. Submit a (maximum) 10 page paper in APA format into the Dropbox.

1. Advanced Practice Roles in Nursing

a. Compare and contrast the roles of the Nurse Practitioner, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Certified Nurse Midwife, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist, and other emerging roles in advanced practice nursing pertaining to the 7 Core Competencies: direct clinical practice, guidance and coaching, consultation, evidence-based practice, leadership, collaboration, ethical decision making

2. Selected Advanced Practice Role (Family Nurse Practitioner)

a. Examine regulatory and legal requirements for the state in which you plan to practice.

b. Describe the professional organizations available for membership based on your selected role.

c. Identify required competencies, including certification requirements, for your selected role.

d. Predict the organization and setting, population, and colleagues with whom you plan to work.

3. Leadership Attributes of the Advanced Practice Role.

a. Complete the leadership quiz outlined for Assignment #4 – http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl-leader… – in order to determine your leadership style.

b. Identify the leadership attributes you currently possess and describe the attributes you may need to develop.

c. Determine how to attain and evaluate those missing attributes.

4. Health Policy and the Advanced Practice Role.

a. Visit the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation – http://www.rwjf.org/en/topics/rwjf-topic-areas/hea… – and identify a health policy issue. Conduct a review of literature and address the following:

i. Describe the current policy and what needs to change. Justify and support your conclusions with citations from the literature.

ii. Provide the process required to make the change with key players and parties of interest.

iii. Explain how you could lead the effort to make or influence the change in policy.

iv. Predict the effect on health care quality if the change in policy is implemented.

Final Assignment #6 – Grading Criteria

Criteria Points Score
Compare and contrast the major roles in advanced practicenursing. 15
For your selected role:

a.Examine regulatory and legal requirements for the state in which you plan to practice.

10
b.Describe the professional organizations available for membership based on your selected role. 5
c.Identify required competencies, including certification requirements, for your selected role. 10
d.Predict the organization and setting, population, and colleagues with whom you plan to work. 5
Leadership Attributes:

a.Identify the leadership attributes you currently possess and describe the attributes you may need to develop.

10
b.Determine how to attain and evaluate those missing attributes. 5
Identify a health policy issue of interest to you.
Conduct a review of literature and address the following:

a.Describe the current policy and what needs to change. Justify and support your conclusions with citations from the literature.

5
b.Provide the process required to make the change with key players and parties of interest. 5
c.Explain how you could lead the effort to make or influence the change in policy. 5
d.Predict the effect on health care quality if the change in policy is implemented. 5
Scholarly Writing:

a.APA style (including grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure as well as formatting and references)

b.Use of at least eight scholarly references, including at least four current, peer-reviewed journal articles. Textbook may be used as a reference, correctly citing chapter and author. Websites may be used for citing certification and competency requirements only.

Critiquing the validity and robustness of research featured in journal articles provides a critical foundation for engaging in evidence-based practice

Assignment: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies

Critiquing the validity and robustness of research featured in journal articles provides a critical foundation for engaging in evidence-based practice. In Weeks 5 and 6, you explored quantitative research designs. In Week 7, you will examine qualitative and mixed methods research designs. For this Assignment, which is due by Day 7 of Week 7, you critique a quantitative and either a qualitative or a mixed methods research study and compare the types of information obtained in each.

To prepare:

  • Select a health topic of interest to you that is relevant to your current area of practice. The topic may be your Course Portfolio Project or a different topic of your choice.
  • Using the Walden Library, locate two articles in scholarly journals that deal with your portfolio topic: 1) Select one article that utilizes a quantitative research design and 2) select a second article that utilizes either a qualitative OR a mixed methods design. These need to be single studies not systematic or integrative reviews (including meta-analysis and metasynthesis). You may use research articles from your reference list. If you cannot find these two types of research on your portfolio topic, you may choose another topic.
  • Locate the following documents in this week’s Learning Resources to access the appropriate templates, which will guide your critique of each article:
    • Critique Template for a Qualitative Study
    • Critique Template for a Quantitative Study
    • Critique Template for a Mixed-Methods Study
  • Consider the fields in the templates as you review the information in each article. Begin to draft a paper in which you analyze the two research approaches as indicated below. Reflect on the overall value of both quantitative and qualitative research. If someone were to say to you, “Qualitative research is not real science,” how would you respond?

To complete this Assignment:

  • Complete the two critiques using the appropriate templates.
  • Write a 2- to 3-page paper that addresses the following:
  • Contrast the types of information that you gained from examining the two different research approaches in the articles that you selected.
    • Describe the general advantages and disadvantages of the two research approaches featured in the articles. Use examples from the articles for support.
    • Formulate a response to the claim that qualitative research is not real science. Highlight the general insights that both quantitative and qualitative studies can provide to researchers. Support your response with references to the Learning Resources and other credible sources.
  • As you complete this Assignment, remember to:
  • Submit your paper to Grammarly and SafeAssign through the Walden Writing Center. Based on the Grammarly and SafeAssign reports, revise your paper as necessary.
  • Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. The School of Nursing Sample Paper provided at the Walden Writing Center provides an example of those required elements (available from the Walden University website found in this week’s Learning Resources). All papers submitted must use this formatting.
  • Combine all three parts of this assignment into one Word document including both critique templates and the narrative with your references. Submit this combined document.

BY DAY 7 OF WEEK 7

This Assignment is due.

Week 6: Quantitative Research Designs—Part 2

Reflect on the following scenarios:

  • Wanda has been involved in a research study of the causes of tooth decay in elementary school children. Twenty-five percent of the students in the free breakfast program at a local school have been screened by a local dental hygienist. The dental hygienist finds an average of 3.5 cavities per student. The same dental hygienist recently screened 25% of the students in a school with no free breakfast program, and found an average of only 1.5 cavities per student. Wanda concludes that the breakfast served to students is the cause of higher tooth decay. Do you agree with Wanda? Can you think of other causes for the higher number of cavities among the students from the school with free breakfast?
  • Jerry is conducting a phone survey to determine public opinions on Medicaid reform. In order to get a random sample, Jerry decides to call the tenth number on the second column of every fifth page of the phone book. He also decides to stop sampling when he has completed 50 surveys. After reaching the target number, Jerry begins to analyze the data he has gathered and is surprised to find that opposition to reform is running about 18% higher than the national average. He is at a quandary to explain this significant difference in numbers. What are some reasons you can think of for the higher rate of opposition?

As you consider these scenarios, you may note issues or problems related to the validity of the research and conclusions. This week, you assess validity in quantitative research. You are introduced to the different types of validity and why they are important to consider when evaluating evidence and research studies. You also examine common threats to validity and consider how to minimize those threats.

Learning Objectives

Students will:
  • Evaluate the internal validity of quantitative research studies
  • Assess the consequences of failing to analyze validity in quantitative research studies

Photo Credit: [Graphs and charts]/[E+]/Getty Images


Learning Resources

Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.

REQUIRED READINGS

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

  • Chapter 10, “Rigor and Validity in Quantitative Research”This chapter introduces the concept of validity in research and describes the different types of validity that must be addressed. Key threats to validity are also explored.
  • Chapter 11, “Specific Types of Quantitative Research”This chapter focuses on the specific types of quantitative research that can be selected. The focus is on the purpose of the research rather than the research design. These include such approaches as clinical trials, evaluation research, health services and outcomes research, needs assessments, or replication studies.

Cantrell, M. A. (2011). Demystifying the research process: Understanding a descriptive comparative research design. Pediatric Nursing, 37(4), 188–189.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
The author of this article discusses the primary aspects of a prominent quantitative research design. The article examines the advantages and disadvantages of the design.

Schultz, L. E., Rivers, K. O., & Ratusnik, D. L. (2008). The role of external validity in evidence-based practice for rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Psychology, 53(3), 294–302.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article details the results of a study that sought to balance concern for rigor with concern for relevance. The authors of the article derive and determine a rating format for relevance and apply it to cognitive rehabilitation.
Note: For the Discussion this week, you will need to read the method section of one of the following quasi-experimental studies. Refer to the details provided in the Week 6 Discussion area.

Metheny, N. A., Davis-Jackson, J., & Stewart, B. J. (2010). Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1), 18–25.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Padula, C. A., Hughes, C., & Baumhover, L. (2009). Impact of a nurse-driven mobility protocol on functional decline in hospitalized older adults. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 24(4), 325–331.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Yuan, S.-C., Chou, M.-C., Hwu, L.-J., Chang, Y.-O., Hsu, W.-H., & Kuo, H.-W. (2009). An intervention program to promote health-related physical fitness in nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(10), 1,404–1,411.

Walden University. (n.d.a.). Paper templates. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/57.htm
This resource provides you access to the School of Nursing Sample Paper, which will serve as a template for formatting your papers.

Document: Critique Template for a Qualitative Study (Word document)
Note: You will use this document to complete this week’s Assignment.

Document: Critique Template for a Quantitative Study (Word document)
Note: You will use this document to complete this week’s Assignment.

Document: Critique Template for a Mixed-Methods Study (Word document)
Note: You will use this document to complete this week’s Assignment.


Discussion: Validity in Quantitative Research Designs

Validity in research refers to the extent researchers can be confident that the cause and effect they identify in their research are in fact causal relationships. If there is low validity in a study, it usually means that the research design is flawed and the results will be of little or no value. Four different aspects of validity should be considered when reviewing a research design: statistical conclusion validity, internal validity, construct validity, and external validity. In this Discussion, you consider the importance of each of these aspects in judging the validity of quantitative research.

To prepare:

  • Review the information in Chapter 10 of the course text on rigor and validity.
  • Read the method section of one of the following quasi-experimental studies (also located in this week’s Learning Resources). Identify at least one potential concern that could be raised about the study’s internal validity.
    • Metheny, N. A., Davis-Jackson, J., & Stewart, B. J. (2010). Effectiveness of an aspiration risk-reduction protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1), 18–25.
    • Padula, C. A., Hughes, C., & Baumhover, L. (2009). Impact of a nurse-driven mobility protocol on functional decline in hospitalized older adults. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 24(4), 325–331.
    • Yuan, S., Chou, M., Hwu, L., Chang, Y., Hsu, W., & Kuo, H. (2009). An intervention program to promote health-related physical fitness in nurses. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(10), 1,404–1,411.
  • Consider strategies that could be used to strengthen the study’s internal validity and how this would impact the three other types of validity.
  • Think about the consequences of an advanced practice nurse neglecting to consider the validity of a research study when reviewing the research for potential use in developing an evidence-based practice.

BY DAY 3

Post the title of the study that you selected and your analysis of the potential concerns that could be raised about the study’s internal validity. Propose recommendations to strengthen the internal validity and assess the effect your changes could have with regard to the other three types of validity. Discuss the dangers of failing to consider the validity of a research study.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.

BY DAY 6

Respond to at least two of your colleagues in one or more of the following ways:

  • Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, and evidence. Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.
  • Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden Library.
  • Validate an idea with your own experience and additional sources.
  • Make a suggestion based on additional evidence drawn from readings or after synthesizing multiple postings.
  • Expand on your colleagues’ postings by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

SUBMISSION AND GRADING INFORMATION

Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:
Week 6 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 and Respond by Day 6

To participate in this Discussion:
Week 6 Discussion

Complete a critique of the quantitative and qualitative articles

Directions:

Complete a critique of the quantitative and qualitative articles that were submitted in Topic 3.

This assignment will be completed in three parts. Refer to the information below as a guide to the information that should be included in each part.

Follow the guidelines for the quantitative and qualitative article critiques in Box 5.2: Guide to an Overall Critique of a Quantitative Research Report, and Box 5.3: Guide to an Overall Critique of a Qualitative Research Report, in Chapter 5 of the Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice textbook.

1.Utilize a central heading to indicate that what follows is the critique of the articles.

2.The side headings of the critique for each article should follow the headings in Box 5.2 and Box 5.3 in Chapter 5 of the Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice textbook.

3.Note that within these basic guidelines, there are additional references to Detailed Critiquing Guidelines found in additional boxes in other chapters of the Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice textbook focused on the various elements of a research study report. Use these to expand the research study and to learn specific terminology appropriate to the critique of research.

When turning in the final submission, please put the elements in the following order: Quantitative Article Critique, Qualitative Article Critique, References (which should include the two articles, the text, and any other additional sources).

Critique of Research Studies – Part 1: Due Topic 4

For Part 1 of the critique, focus only on the following segments for each article:

Quantitative Qualitative
·Title ·Title
·Abstract ·Abstract
·Introduction ·Introduction
oStatement of the problem oStatement of the problem
oHypotheses or research questions oResearch questions
oLiterature review oLiterature review
oConceptual/Theoretical framework oConceptual underpinnings

Critique of Research Studies – Part 2: Due Topic 6

For Part 2 of the critique, focus only on the following segments for each article:

Quantitative Qualitative
·Method ·Method
oProtection of human rights oProtection of participants’ rights
oResearch design oResearch design and research tradition
oPopulation and sample oSample and setting
oData collection and measurement oData collection
oProcedures oProcedures
oEnhancement of trustworthiness

Details:

Follow the instructions provided in “Critique of Research Studies Instructions.”

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are not required to submit this assignment to Turnitin.

Critique of Research Studies – Part 1 

1
Not submitted
0.00%
2
Unsatisfactory
75.00%
3
Less Than Satisfactory
80.00%
4
Satisfactory
88.00%
5
Good
92.00%
6
Excellent
100.00%
70.0 %Content
7.0 % Quantitative Title and Abstract None Critique is missing for quantitative research title and abstract. Critique incompletely or incorrectly addresses guidelines and criteria for a quantitative research title and abstract. Critique is not supported with relevant evidence. Critique addresses some guidelines and criteria for a quantitative research title and abstract. Parts of the critique are supported with relevant evidence. Critique thoroughly addresses most guidelines and criteria for a quantitative research title and abstract. Critique is supported with relevant evidence. Critique thoroughly addresses all guidelines and criteria for the quantitative research title and abstract. Critique is supported with relevant evidence.
28.0 % Quantitative Introduction: Statement of the problem, hypotheses or research questions, literature review, and conceptual framework/theoretical framework None Critique is missing for all quantitative introduction components. Critique is vague and addresses some guidelines and criteria for each of the quantitative research introduction components OR the critique is thorough but is missing three components. Critique is unsupported with evidence. Critique is brief and addresses some guidelines and criteria for each of the quantitative research introduction components OR the critique is thorough but is missing two components. Critique is somewhat supported with relevant evidence. Critique is detailed and addresses most guidelines and criteria for each of the quantitative research introduction components OR the critique is thorough but is missing a component. Critique is supported with relevant evidence. Critique thoroughly addresses all guidelines and criteria for each of the quantitative research introduction components. Critique is supported with relevant evidence.
7.0 % Qualitative Title and Abstract None Critique is missing for qualitative research title and abstract. Critique incompletely or incorrectly addresses guidelines and criteria for a qualitative research title and abstract. Critique is not supported with relevant evidence. Critique addresses some guidelines and criteria for a qualitative research title and abstract. Parts of the critique are supported with relevant evidence. Critique thoroughly addresses most guidelines and criteria for a qualitative research title and abstract. Critique is supported with relevant evidence. Critique thoroughly addresses all guidelines and criteria for the qualitative research title and abstract. Critique is supported with relevant evidence.
28.0 % Qualitative Introduction: Statement of the problem, research questions, literature review, and conceptual underpinnings None Critique is missing for all qualitative introduction components. Critique is vague and addresses some guidelines and criteria for each of the qualitative research introduction components OR the critique is thorough but is missing three components. Critique is unsupported with evidence Critique is brief and addresses some guidelines and criteria for each of the qualitative research introduction components OR the critique is thorough but is missing two components. Critique is somewhat supported with relevant evidence. Critique is detailed and addresses most guidelines and criteria for each of the qualitative research introduction components OR the critique is thorough but is missing a component. Critique is supported with relevant evidence. Critique thoroughly addresses all guidelines and criteria for each of the qualitative research introduction components. Critique is supported with relevant evidence.
20.0 %Organization and Effectiveness
20.0 % Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) None Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are employed. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) and/or word choice are present. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Audience-appropriate language is employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech. The writer is clearly in command of standard, written academic English.
10.0 %Format
5.0 % Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) None Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent. Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.
5.0 % Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment and style) None No reference page is included. No citations are used. Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used. Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present. Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and style is usually correct