Blog

Nuclear Chemistry Worksheet

Nuclear Chemistry Worksheet

222   4

1. 86Rn ———> ________ + 2He

234  4

2. ______ ———> 90Th + 2He

 

230   226

3. 90Th ———> 88Ra + ______

 

214  0

4. 82Pb ———> ______+ -1e

 

234   234

5. 92U ———> 93Np + _______

 

6. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the Beta decay of:

a. Nitrogen-16

b. Potassium-40

 

7. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the Alpha decay of:

a. Plutonium-244

b. Strontium-90

 

8. Write the balanced nuclear equations for the Beta, Alpha, and Gamma

decay of Radium-226.

 

9. How are the mass number and atomic number of the nucleus affected by

the loss of the following?

a. beta particle

b. alpha particle

c. gamma particle

Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding

Provide an explanation for three of the twelve items below.

a.  Explain how valence electrons create a chemical bond, and how they are obtained.

b.  Explain the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond.

c.  Provide the number of valence electrons in each structure.

1.    Cl2

2.    O2

3.    N2

4.    PI3

5.    CCl4

6.    HONO2

7.    Hl

8.    PH3

9.    CS2

10.HOCl

11.CH3OH

12.HOCN

PATIENT-CENTERED MEDICAL HOME, AMBULATORY CARE, COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTERS, COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE, AND MENTAL HEALTH (SLP)

The overall goal of the Session Long Project in this course is to examine health care delivery in the United States from a personal perspective and provide recommendations for improvements.

Please view these videos:

HPCtube. (2012). What is a Community Health Center? [Video] Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kPLpNWO5uGs

Public Health Wessex Training Group. (2014). What is Public Health? [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oy1CAMObRzc

SmithGroupJJR. (2015). Ambulatory Care Center Design. [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cz5MxxvHMss

WalltoWallStudios. (2013). What’s a Community Health Center? [Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fLTbgCetJfM

For the Module 3 SLP, conduct some preliminary research on a Patient Centered Medical Home, Ambulatory Care, Community Health Centers, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, or Mental Health facility in your state. You are to create a 12- to 15-slide PowerPoint Presentation (not including the title or reference slides) covering your selected facility in your state. In your presentation, you are to answer the following:

  1. Which populations (e.g., adults, children, or older adults) and what conditions/diseases are targeted?
  2. Who are the participating payers?
  3. What type of insurance product (e.g., HMO or PPO) do the participating payers include?
  4. Who are the participating providers? (List only the type of providers, such as hospitals or community health centers.)
  5. How are the participating providers reimbursed?

In your final slides, you are to make recommendations for the future of health care delivery of the facility that you selected. The recommendations are to be vividly supported on scholarly sources.

SLP Assignment Expectations

  1. Conduct additional research to gather sufficient information to support your design of your department organization chart.
  2. Limit your PPT to a maximum of 17 slides (15 not including the title and reference slide).
  3. Support your SLP with peer-reviewed articles, using at least 3-4 references. Use the following source for additional information on how to recognize peer-reviewed journals: http://www.angelo.edu/services/library/handouts/peerrev.php.
  4. You may use the following source to assist in formatting your assignment: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/.

CHEM 1010: Medical General Chemistry I

I need an expert in CHEM 1010: Medical General Chemistry I, to perform laboratory activities I need to obtain a B, the work consists of developing some activities of the laboratory manual and performing some quizzes. The laboratory consists of 10 weeks of work, in each week there are laboratory activities and a quiz, I have done 6 quiz and I have obtained a score of 61%, I need get 100% in the next 5 quiz and. I need finish the course on friday 17 of this month and get an B in the laboratory activities. Please only experts who are sure to get the results I ask. I will answer tonight.

Work Summary

– 10 weeks Lab activities

– 5 lab quizzes of 10 question of multiple choice

T2 Lab explosion

In your own words, discuss the chemistry of the process presented in the materials, and what the company and other organizations should have done to prevent the incident from occurring. Make sure you deal with the concept of exothermic reactions. Provide enough discussion to convey that you clearly understand the concept of an exothermic reaction. 

 Your APA formatted paper should be three pages in length (not including the title and references pages). Any sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. 

 U.S. Chemical Safety Board. (2009). T2 Laboratories Inc. reactive chemical explosion. Retrieved from http://www.csb.gov/t2-laboratories-inc-reactive-chemical-explosion/ 

Determination of Blood Alcohol “Dry Lab”

Determination of Blood Alcohol

“Dry Lab”

Introduction

Quantitative determination of blood alcohol (BAC) is one of the most common analyses performed in the forensic toxicology laboratory. GC with FIR (flame ionization detection) is the preferred technique.

Blood samples must be drawn by medical personnel and transported to the lab, where they are stored in a refrigerator. The blood tubes used for collection generally contain sodium fluoride, an anti-glycolytic, which inhibits enzyme reactions with glucose (recall that fermentation of glucose can produce alcohol!). Sample preparation is minimal and will vary by laboratory. Nearly all labs, however, will require use of an internal standard (discussed further below). 

Quantitative analysis by GC is typically done using an autosampler. Even with this, the very small sample injection volumes and potential small changes in instrumental conditions, such as gas flow, might introduce other variations. One method commonly used to compensate for these difficulties is the use of internal standards.

The internal standard method involves spiking an exactly known quantity of a substance into every sample and standard. The area of the internal standard and the area of the analyte are determined, and then a ratio of these two is calculated by dividing the area of the analyte peak by the area of the internal standard peak. The result is called a peak area ratio (PAR). The idea is that even though the peak areas for a given sample may vary from one test to the next due to injection differences or instrumental variations, the ratio of the two peaks will be constant, since the variations will affect both substances equally. Then, when preparing the calibration curve, the PAR is plotted on the y-axis rather than the simple peak area.

A good internal standard has the following characteristics:

ü Yields a peak that is well resolved from other peaks

ü Has a retention time close to the analyte’s retention time 

ü Normally, some structural similarity between the IS and analyte is desirable

ü Is a compound not readily available to the public and this not typically ingested

o This can be confirmed by using two Internal Standards (e.g., N-Propanol and Isobutanol)

§ The area ratio between the two internal standards should be a constant

There are two ways of introducing an internal standard into the analysis. One way is to dissolve the internal standard into the solvent used to dilute both samples and standards. A second way is to add an accurate and precise volume of concentrated internal standard solution to the samples and standards. The Internal Standard solution may contain salt (i.e., sodium chloride) to enhance the headspace analyses.  Addition of salt reduces the solubility of alcohol in an aqueous solution.

For blood alcohol quantitative determinations, n-propanol is a commonly used internal standard. In the data set below, you are provided with peak areas for both ethanol and propanol. When you make the calibration curve, plot the PAR vs the concentration.

Quality control samples (QC) are a critical component of a forensic BAC. QC samples typically include:

Negative control (contains no ethanol)

Positive control (contains a known amount of ethanol)

Quality control requirements typically include:

Agreement between the calculated value found for a control and its true, assigned value 

Agreement between the calculated ethanol concentrations in duplicate samples

Agreement between the retention times of calibrator and sample ethanol peaks and internal standard peaks

For this “dry lab” you will be given a set of data from a BAC run. You will need to determine the PAR, plot a calibration curve, determine the concentrations of the unknowns, and calculate the QC results to be sure they are within the pre-established limits.

Data

In a real world forensic BAC run, you would have two separate columns running these samples simultaneously. You would also determine acetone, isopropanol, and methanol. For this dry lab, however, we will only do calculations for ethanol on one column.

Concentration (g   ethanol / 100 mL)

Peak area for ethanol

Retention time ethanol, min

Peak area for n-propanol (IS spiked at 0.05g/dL)

Retention time n-propanol min

Blank

0

1259

1.141

25649

1.991

Calibrator 1

0.0100

3975

1.139

24507

1.898

Calibrator 2

0.0500

21876

1.137

25565

2.010

Calibrator 3

0.0800

37561

1.140

24610

1.995

Calibrator 4

0.100

46003

1.142

24368

1.997

Calibrator 5

0.300

133987

1.138

25117

2.001

Calibrator 6

0.500

221397

1.140

24947

1.993

Negative control 1

0

3165

1.145

25387

2.011

Positive control 1

0.0800

35587

1.135

24991

1.993

Blood sample 1

?

67590

1.141

25619

1.990

Blood sample 1 duplicate

?

70345

1.138

25116

1.891

Blood sample 2

?

98171

1.144

24819

1.993

Blood sample 2 duplicate

?

110786

1.137

25038

2.011

Negative control 2

0

1590

1.143

25437

1.995

Positive control 2

0.300

146723

1.144

24751

1.996

Report Requirements

Calculations

For each question, show the calculations for at least one example. You may write-out rather than type the calculations, if you wish.

1. Use the calibrator data to make a calibration curve using Excel. You should be able to copy and paste that data table into Excel. Remember to use the PAR, not just the ethanol peak area. Plot PAR on the on the y-axis and ethanol concentration on the x-axis. Use Excel to get a trendline (linear least squared fit to the data) and an r2 value for the calibration curve. Attach the graph to the report. (2 pts) 

2. The standard operating procedure (SOP) that you are using says that the r2 value for the calibration curve must be greater than 0.995. Does your curve meet that requirement? (0.5 pts)

3. Use the trendline equation to calculate the ethanol concentrations for negative control 1 and 2. (1 pt) 

4. The SOP in your lab states that the QC limit for the negative control is less than 0.0025%. (1 pt)

a. Are both of the negative controls within QC limits?

b. Suppose that your SOP says that you can’t report data if the limit is exceeded. Would you be able to report data from this run?

5. Use the trendline to calculate the ethanol concentrations for positive control 1 and 2. (1.5 pts)

6. Calculate the % error for both positive controls. (See data table for the “true” concentrations). (1.5 pts)

7. The SOP states that the positive controls must be within 5% of the “true” concentration. If they aren’t, you should re-run the batch. Can you report the data from this batch? (0.5 pt)

8. Calculate the ethanol concentrations for the four injections of Blood samples. (1.5 pts)

9. Calculate the agreement between each Blood sample and its duplicate as relative percent difference from the average (RPD). (1.5 pts)

10. Suppose your SOP requires that the RPD must be +/- 5%. Do your samples meet this requirement, and could you report this data? (0.5 pts)

11. Calculate and list the average value of the retention time for the ethanol and n-propanol for the 6 calibrators.  (1pt)

12. Suppose your SOP requires that the retention times for the ethanol and n-propanol in the samples is within ±3% of the average retention time for those substances in the calibrators. Do your 4 Blood sample injections meet that requirement? Briefly justify your answer. (1.5 pts)

Questions

13. The per se limit for DUI is 0.08%. Explain what the percent unit actually means in blood alcohol testing. Is this on a weight/weight basis, a volume/volume basis, a volume/weight basis or a weight/volume basis? Would it make a difference if the limit were on a different basis? (1 pt)

14. Is the unit g ethanol/dL blood the same unit as 0.08%? What volume in is 1 dL in units of milliliters? (1 pt)

15. Were any of the samples in this dry lab data above the legal limit? If so, which ones? (1 pt)

16. The actual columns often used for BAC are proprietary. Manufacturers provide examples of operating conditions that demonstrate how well the columns separate mixtures, but disclose little information on the composition of the columns. Even though you don’t know the exact makeup of the stationary phase in the columns, would you expect them to be polar or non-polar? Explain your answer. (1 pt)

17. Chromatographic conditions for BAC are generally isothermal. Briefly explain the term isothermal in the context of GC-FID. What step in a temperature gradient GC-FID run can be omitted in an isothermal GC-FID run? Why are isothermal methods preferred for BAC? (2 pts)

Report: Title, Name, Questions answered in order and email of spreadsheet to instructor. (1 pt)

Unit I PowerPoint Presentation

Unit I PowerPoint Presentation 

Instructions

Assume the role of an environmental safety expert who is presenting to a     group of undergraduate college students about the application of toxicology in     the field of environmental health and safety. Your presentation should address     the following key points. 

  • Explain how dose-response data are utilized for risk assessment. Discuss the relationship between risk assessment and risk management.       
  • Identify and explain how at least three fields of toxicology contribute to areas of environmental safety and health. 
  • Research and discuss one current event (within the last six to eight months) that exemplified the relationship between toxicology and environmental  safety and health. 

The assignment should be completed as a PowerPoint presentation and should     meet the following requirements: 

  1. The length should be at least eight slides, not including your title and reference slides.
  2. Key points only should be entered on slides. Full paragraphs should not be included on presentation slides.
  3. Voice-over or speaker notes should be included for details of the discussion. This should not be an exact replica of the slide information but an expansion of information to fill in the blanks and provide  additional details to the audience.
  4. Include least three visual aids and/or graphics.
  5. A minimum of three credible sources should be used for this assignment,  and the references should be properly cited in a reference list at the   end   of  the PowerPoint. The CSU Online Library is a great place to  find  credible       sources.   All references  and citations used must be in APA style.

find a protein supplement with a Nutrition Food Facts Label

please find a protein supplement with a Nutrition Food Facts Label.

Here is an example, CytoSport Muscle Milk Chocolate Protein Supplement Powder sold by Walgreens. You can find your protein supplement using the web or going to the store. Once you have found a product, locate the list of ingredients and nutrition label. You will need this for your forum discussion.

Do not use a supplement someone else has selected. Once you have found a supplement, go to this week’s forum and see if anyone has posted that supplement’s name. If the name is not present, then open a new thread and type the product name in the thread’s title box. This will reserve that supplement for you. You can add the required initial forum discussion information any time before the required due date. To add your discussion after posting your supplement title, select edit thread.

In the Forum, list the ingredients and tell the class the functional property of each ingredient. In other words, what it contributes to the product. Don’t confuse functional properties with nutritional/health properties. For example, one of the ingredients in CytoSport Muscle Milk Chocolate Protein Supplement Powder is fructooligosaccharides. This ingredient contributes sweetness to the product. I suggest you start with this website to find the functional property: http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/food-additives. If the item is not in this list, then try the Natural Medicines Database. You can find this in our library under databases. I attached directions to access the Natural Medicines Database. If your ingredient is not in the database, then search for it on the web. I provided links to several other databases or websites below. Be very careful that you tell us the functional properties, not the health properties, of the ingredient.

Don’t forget to include a bibliography of your information sources. Also, tell the class about the nutrition information, for example: How many calories per serving? How many calories are from fat and carbohydrate? Does it contain any other vitamins or minerals? Then, evaluate the product. Would you use it? Why or why not?

unit 3 toxicology

Unit III Case Study Open

Instructions

In  this assignment, you will choose options from each category to design    your own  case study. Once you have selected one option from each category, you    will use  that profile to write a case study report. Do not use the same    chemical you  researched in Unit II. Be  creative in developing your character    by giving a name, occupation (if  applicable), identity, and description of the    individual and the situation and  circumstances of the case study. The details    of the effects of the chemical  exposure should be supported by your    references.  

Step 1: Identify a specific chemical from ONE of these  categories: 

  1. fungicide, 
  2. rodenticide, 
  3. herbicide, or 
  4. insecticide. 

   Step     2: Choose a profile of the individual affected: 

  1. adult or 
  2. child. 

Step  3: Research at least two incidents of exposure  of  the  chemical. 

Step 4: Develop a case study of exposure of your chemical  to the    individual. Discuss the following in your case study: 

  1. Identify how the individual was exposed to the chemical. 
  2. Identify the exposure pathway of your chosen chemical. 
  3. What organ systems were affected by the chemical? 
  4. What acute and chronic effects of exposure to the chemical were observed?        Would the effects have been different if the individual was younger or older?       
  5. How could exposure to the chemical be avoided? 

The  case study should include the following  components: 

  1. Include all of the aspects in Step 4. 
  2. Utilize at least three credible references, one of which may be the textbook, and one of which must come from the CSU Online Library. 
  3. Include a minimum of at least two pages, not including title and reference  pages. 
  4. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased  and quoted material must have accompanying citations. All references and  citations used must be in APA style.