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Do you think there are any indications that either fraud or abuse has occurred? If so, provide an example of each and define why you believe so with scholarly references and support.

Please read the case study on page 468 of your text titled Fraud and Abuse- Help Me, the Feds are Coming! In a 2-3 page analysis, answer the following questions:

1) Do you think there are any indications that either fraud or abuse has occurred? If so, provide an example of each and define why you believe so with scholarly references and support.

2) What legal implications is the lawyer referring to when he says the author needs to come clean and explain what he has been involved with? Is he protected if he were to come clean?

3) What implications are there regarding the coding issues?

4) What would you do in this situation? What do you think the outcome would be for the author of this case as it stands today?

Compose your analysis in APA format with a title page, introduction, conclusion and reference page. Cite 1-2 scholarly references beyond your text to support your opinions.

How many would be able to pay the higher price for television airtime?

Last year Oscar was promoted to manager of marketing research for the sole television station in a small metropolitan market. Oscar had earned a bachelor’s degree in marketing research five years earlier and immediately accepted an entry-level marketing research position at the television station because its management had a reputation for honesty and helping small businesses gain access to the mass media. The television station was sold six months ago to an international conglomerate. At that time, Laurence replaced the general manager. Laurence has developed a reputation in the industry of raising revenues and cutting costs.

Laurence just finished reviewing the policies of the former general manager and noted that, although the cost of servicing the numerous small business accounts was high, the profit margin on these accounts was about the same as for large business accounts. Laurence decided that revenues and profits could be increased by 28 percent simply by charging small business accounts proportionately more for television airtime. Laurence calls Oscar and wants him to conduct a survey that would guarantee data that would justify his price increase.

Oscar is dismayed at the prospect of conducting such research. In his college coursework, Oscar had learned the importance of conducting objective, unbiased research studies. Furthermore, Oscar had won a national competition with his senior marketing research project. Through the first two years with the television station, Oscar was consistently complimented by the small business owners that he worked with for his integrity in conducting research studies. It was this work and these compliments that led to his promotion to manager of marketing research.

After Oscar got off the telephone with Laurence, he stared into space and pondered his dilemma. Jobs were not readily available in the town, and he did not wish to relocate elsewhere. Yet if he produced the data that John wanted, it would go against his training and pride in conducting proper research studies. And what about all of those small businesses that have come to rely on the television station for their access to the mass media? How many would be able to pay the higher price for television airtime?

In preparing your response, include responses to the following questions:

What are the relevant facts?

What are the ethical issues?

Who are the primary stakeholders?

What are the possible alternatives for Oscar?

What are the ethics of the alternatives?

• Ask questions based on a utilitarian perspective (cost and benefits).

• Ask questions based on a “rights” perspective. 

• Ask questions based on a “justice” perspective

What actions should be taken?

identify the three possible categories of clients within this new clientele network.

Week 1

Organizational Survival Strategies

This discussion has two options. Please choose either Option A or Option B to respond to. Be sure to indicate within your post which option you chose. 

Option A: Hospitals frequently seek ways to ensure survival. Sometimes an adversarial climate cannot be avoided when the action that is being considered is controversial. For example, a hospital may seek to expand its market reach by opening an inpatient drug treatment facility in a small suburban township. The county where the township sits has seen a steady rise in heroin addiction, as well as an increase in hepatitis cases. As a manager, identify the three possible categories of clients within this new clientele network. Give at least one example of a client for each category and explain the reason for your decision. 

Option B: In this increasingly difficult economic environment, many organizations have been forced to take drastic operational and systematic measures to stay afloat and maintain their position within the community. If you were a health care manager leading an organization in which its financial, political, and/or social position was threatened, what survival strategies would you employ? Please choose at least three strategies from your textbook to discuss and thoroughly explain the rationale for your choices. 
The Challenge of Change 

Change is usually positive, but it can also be difficult to embrace at times.  Employees can be resistant to change, while managers may feel that it is necessary for organizational stability.  Discuss the challenge of change as it relates to health care organizations.  What is the overall impact of change on the organization, its employees, and its constituents, and what role does the manager play as an agent of change?  In addition to responding to these questions, review the examples of successful change in your textbook and choose two examples to discuss in greater detail.  What did you learn from these examples?  In each case, how did the individuals overcome the barriers to change, and what were the resulting benefits?

Week 2

Policy and Planning Constraints 

Locate an example of a policy or guideline from an external source to a healthcare organization. Explain how this policy or guidlines may be a constraint to a healthcare organization’s planning, or how it may shape the healthcare organization’s philosophy. For example, given that the American Academy of Pediatrics offers guidelines on child vaccinations, these guidelines might impact the ability of the healthcare organization to deliver services to newborns and infants. Using a similar example, as well as the characteristics of effective plans as your framework, discuss how proper planning can help organizations in their future decision making. 

The Control Process

The control process involves three phases that are cyclic: establishing standards, measuring performance, and correcting deviations. Examine the manner in which health care leaders progress through each phase of the control process to manage organizations.  What is the management function of controlling as related to performance improvement?  What tools are used to measure and monitor performance?  Please describe at least two functions and two tools in your response. 

Week 3

Strategic Planning and Budgeting

 Imagine you are considering the possibility of operating a small business or practice related to health care, either as a provider of some sort of care or as a service intended to support various provider organizations in their care-delivery activities. 

  1. Describe the kind of entity you plan to establish by stating the service or services you propose to deliver and the kinds of clients or customers you would be serving.   
  2. Write a few sentences offering compelling reasons for your proposed venture, explaining why you believe it is needed and by whom it is needed.  Also discuss any competition you foresee.   
  3. Develop an estimate of how much money you will require to become established your business, and state how you would finance your venture. Also discuss your plan for maintaining your budget. 
  4. Create a mission or vision statement for your organization.

Committees and Teams

Select either Option A or Option B to respond to and indicate within your post which option you chose. 
Option A : Identify what you believe are the top three challenges in setting up a hospital-based committee from a managerial perspective.  In a 250- to 300- word post, discuss your rationale and address the following questions: 

  1. Why are committees advantageous for health care organizations? 
  2. What are some of the steps that you, as a manager, could take to overcome these challenges? 
  3. How would you address conflict and/or divisiveness within the committee or team?

Option B : Committees have been determined as a necessary component to health care organizations.  As a manager, you have been tasked to set up a committee with one of the hospital departments.  In doing so, in a 250-300 word post, consider the following questions:  

  1. How much influence should the committee have in the overall management structure? 
  2. How would you maintain authority without adopting an autocratic leadership style? 
  3. How would you set up an employee team without violating union and labors laws?

Week 4

Case Study: Authority and Leadership

Review the details of the case Authority and Leadership: Rising From the Ranks from your course text, and respond to the following questions:

  1. Identify the potential advantages Julie might enjoy in becoming manager of a group of which she has long been a member, and contrast these with the possible disadvantages that might present themselves because she has long been a member of this group.
  2. Describe how Julie will have to proceed in establishing herself as the legitimate possessor or supervisory authority on the unit, and describe the sources and forms of Julie’s authority

Motivational Conflict Resolution

Select either Option A or Option B and indicate in your post which option you have selected.  
In any organization, regardless of the industry, some level of conflict and/or office bickering is inevitable and may have a damaging impact on productivity and motivation or morale. However, it is the responsibility of the manager to ensure that conflict is avoided whenever possible, and when it does occur, it is handled in an appropriate and respectful manner. With this in mind, listen to the podcast,  Stop the Medical Office Bickering and respond to your selected option.

Option A: Case Study: A Matter of Motivation: The Delayed Promotion

Review the details of the case above from your course text, and respond to the following questions:

  1. Thoroughly analyze the likely state of your ability to motivate yourself in your new position. In the process, comment to whatever extent you feel necessary on your level of confidence in the relative stability of your position and how this might affect your performance.
  2. Describe the most likely motivational state of your HIM staff at the time you assumed the director’s position, and explain in detail why this state probably exists.
  3. Based on the podcast, what are some proactive strategies that management could have used to reduce the potential for conflict in this situation?

Option B: Case Study: Charting a Course for Conflict Resolution: “It’s a Policy” 

Review the details of the case above from your course text, and respond to the following questions:

  1. Develop the argument you would be advocating if you were in George Mann’s position.  In a similar fashion, thoroughly develop the argument you would advance if you were in Sally Carter’s position.
  2. Assuming the position of CEO, Jane Arnold, render a decision. Document your decision in whatever detail may be necessary, and include a complete explanation for your decision.
  3. Based on the foregoing, outline whatever steps (e.g., policy changes, guidelines, payroll requirements, or something else) you believe should be considered to minimize the chances of similar conflict in the future.

Week 5

Communication Challenges

Select either Option A or Option B and indicate in your post which option you have selected.   
Option A: Compared to a non-healthcare organization, a manager must have a special skill set for communicating with health professionals and non professionals within a health care organization. What do you believe are those particular skill sets? What are the ethical, financial, and legal implications for communication within a health care organization? What are the some of the primary barriers to communication between a manager and his/her staff? 

Option B: Case Study: Your Word Against His 

Review the details of the case “Your Word Against His” in your course text. Describe in detail any options you could pursue to set the matter straight for all parties who received the wrong information, while incurring the minimum possible public disfavor by the vice president. In addition, describe what you think went wrong this in case. Where was the communication breakdown, and how could it have been avoided?

The Health Professional as Manager

Select either Option A or Option B and indicate in your post which option you have selected. 

Option A:  Imagine your colleague and friend, Jane Smith, has recently been promoted to department manager for your facility.  You have worked side-by-side with Jane for the past ten years and can speak to her excellent skills as a health professional.  However, Jane has no prior management experience and  many of your co-workers are fearful that she does not possess the necessary leadership skills to effectively lead the team.  You feel conflicted because you agree with your colleagues but you also have faith that Jane will do her best.  Considering Jane’s situation, describe the dual role of the health professional as manager.  What challenges do managers face when they make the leap from health care professional to manager?  What are some of the common complaints to indicate the presence of ill-fitting management? 

Option B: Given the effort and creativity that you have put into your Senior Projects for this course, use this discussion board as a forum to share your topic with your classmates.  Provide a comprehensive description of the topic you chose, discuss your reason(s) for choosing the topic, and present some of the key information that you learned throughout the research process.  For example, what did you learn about the role of management in influencing health care decisions?  How do you think the future of healthcare will be impacted by your topic?  Are there any current events and/or media stories that relate to your topic? 

THIS INCLUDES ANSWERS FOR ALL DISCUSSION QUESTIONS MENTIONED ABOVE

These answers are original, plagiarism free and never been used before by anyone.

So you can turn them in as they are…

You will be creating an informational report on your career choice. At the beginning of your report, discuss your five strengths that you discovered and relate your strengths to your career choice.

You will be creating an informational report on your career choice. At the beginning of your report, discuss your five strengths that you discovered and relate your strengths to your career choice. 

Your report should have at least three single-spaced pages for the body of the report. Types of information to be included in this career informational report are as follows:
· Name the five strengths identified and careers
· Why you chose the specific career from the five identified strengths
· Description of the career
· Skills required
· Training and education required
· Tasks, duties and responsibilities
· Work environment
· Future job outlook
· Earnings range (annual entry and maximum)
· Advantages and disadvantages of career choice
· Interesting facts about career
· Related occupations to career choice

Write your informational paper with your audience in mind. Your audience has no prior knowledge of this career field.

Provide an overview of the organization and indicate why contingency planning efforts are needed and how these efforts could benefit the business.

Create a hypothetical organization with details including geographic location(s), number of employees in each location, primary business functions, operational and technology details, potential threats to the business and its technology, and anything else that you believe is relevant to the business.

Assume this organization is lacking in its contingency planning efforts and requires assistance in ensuring these efforts are appropriately addressed to increase its overall security and preparedness posture.

Write a ten to fifteen (10-15) page paper in which you:

Provide an overview of the organization and indicate why contingency planning efforts are needed and how these efforts could benefit the business.
Develop a full contingency plan for the organization. Include all subordinate functions / sub plans, including BIA, IRP, DRP, and BCP efforts.
Determine the policies and procedures that would be needed for all contingency planning efforts. Detail the role of the policy / procedure, and explain how each would help achieve the goals of these efforts.
Detail the processes to utilize in order to fully implement the contingency plan and its components, and explain the efforts to consider in maintaining the plans.
Create a hypothetical incident scenario where the contingency planning efforts would need to be utilized and detail: a. How the plan is sufficiently equipped to handle the incident. b. a timeline for the incident response and recovery efforts.
Identify any ethical concerns that are specific to this organization and its incident response personnel (especially the CP Team Leader), and explain how to plan for these concerns.
Use at least five (5) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Can your idea be tested with any of the various types of experimental designs? Why or why not?

The University requires Doctoral Students to make a formal proposal for our research. This week, we will gain some practice creating a portion of such a proposal by drafting a submission to your Instructor. Using the work in this week and in previous weeks, propose a quantitative study, addressing the following:

Formulate relevant research questions and hypotheses.
Can your idea be tested with any of the various types of experimental designs? Why or why not?
What is your design?
Why have you chosen that design?
What is your target population?
How would you identify and recruit participants?
What data collection method might you use?
How would that data help answer your research question(s)/hypotheses?
How consistent are these data collection methods with methods used in existing research on your topic?
Why did you choose these methods?
What are the alternatives?
How would you ensure quality and reliability of the data?
How might you analyze the data?
What are the target audiences for your findings?

Review the information in your text on the transmission of infectious diseases (pp. 401-408 and 433-442 ). Briefly explain the four ways infectious diseases can be spread, giving an example of each. Then identify sanitary practices that can prevent the spread of illness for each of these four methods of transmission.

  • Respond to each item. Each response should be concise and between two and three paragraphs in length.
  • Use MS Word to write your responses, and submit your answers to all three questions in one Word document.
  • Copy and paste each question within the document, so that your Instructor can see which question you are responding to.
  1. Without proper precautions, early childhood settings can be prone to the spread of infectious diseases. Review the information in your text on the transmission of infectious diseases (pp. 401-408 and 433-442 ). Briefly explain the four ways infectious diseases can be spread, giving an example of each. Then identify sanitary practices that can prevent the spread of illness for each of these four methods of transmission.

  2. Review your course text readings on role modeling, especially pages 392-374, and explain why adults should model good health behaviors for children. Describe three different health behaviors you might model for children and their families. For each, describe at least one step you could take to help children, and possibly their families, adopt these behaviors.

  3. Early childhood professionals are not expected to diagnose serious illnesses; however, they should be able to identify symptoms that may indicate infectious diseases common in young children. Imagine, for example, that a 3-year-old arrives at school in the morning with a runny nose. The mucus is clear, and he has no other obvious symptoms except for a slight cough. Because his symptoms are mild, his teacher decides to allow him to stay at school, but she continues to observe him closely throughout the day to see if his condition worsens. Review Tables 12-1 through 12-4 (pp. 436-441) in your text and identify possible illnesses this child might have. Describe the symptoms you would look for if you were his teacher. Under what conditions would you contact a family member and/or emergency medical personnel?

What is your definition of family?

Part 1. 125 words

Defining Families – Defining family is a challenge in the research. There are various definitions in research, policy, organizations, and other areas. Now it is your turn to define family.

  1. What is your definition of family?
  2. What terms or concepts would you use?
  3. What was the process like for you in determining a definition of family?

Part 2. 400 words

Family theories help us put a situation into context and inspire us to look at things in further details. View the following clips about three teen couples. Choose TWO theoretical perspectives to analyze/understand each couple’s situation. Use the discussion board to exchange your thoughts and compare the usefulness of the two theories you adopted. How does each theory help you understand the couples’ situation? (Give examples from the clips to prove your points.) Does one theory work better than the other theory? If so, how?

Video Clips

  1. PrimeTime TV: Teen Pregnancy in America Part I
  2. PrimeTime TV: Teen Pregnancy in America Part II

For you to reference: The Three Teen Couples Introduced in the Clips

Hannah and Taylor (17 years old) – new born twins
Aliki and Jeremy (17 years old) – Carter (18 month-old)
Mahogany and Don (15 years old) – Khaesyn (3 month-old)

Discussion Format

Theory #1:

Write down the name of the theory you choose here and explain how the theory helped you understand each couple’s situation. If the theory can’t explain a couple’s situation well, just say it’s not applicable and explain why.

Theory #2: 

Same as the above.

Comparison: 

Discuss the following questions: How do your theories help you understand the couples’ situation? Does one theory work better than the other theory? If so, how?

Review the definition your peers determine. Provide your thoughts and feedback on the definition of family. Responses to the discussion board should be at least 7-10 sentences in length. Students need to reply at least two of their peers and should be no less than 5-6 sentences in length. The replies to peers need to be thoughtful and provoke conversation.

Why is the research question significant to your research paper?

Select one (1) peer-reviewed research article that you used in your research paper to share with the class. Do not discuss en editorial or letter to editor.  


After reading your selected article, post the following information: 
1. Why is the research question significant to your research paper?   
2. What was the purpose of the study?  
3. What was the study design?  
4. Who was in the study population(s)/sample(s)? 
5. What was the outcome and was it consistent with the researcher(s)’ original research question?  
6. What recommendation(s) did the researcher offer for future studies?  
7. How do you know this article was peer-reviewed?

OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD)              1

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Name

Course

Tutor

Date

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

Abstract 

A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the current killers in the world. It is a preventable disease that makes it difficult for the affected individual to empty air out of the lungs otherwise referred to as airflow obstruction. The difficulties in breathing that is brought about by this condition leaves one feeling tired because they use much energy to breathe than required. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a term that is used to include other types of pulmonary diseases that include chronic bronchitis, emphysema or both. Although asthma is a health condition that results in difficulties in breathing it is not included among the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The effects of the disease are not instant but rather evolve at a slower rate inhibiting the breathing system of a patient. However, the most important thing to note is that the disease can be prevented and it is relatively easier when it is detected in its earlier stages than in advanced stage.

In the United States, between 10 % and 20% of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is said to have been caused by occupational or exposure to chemical vapors, irritants, and fumes which are very much contaminated. A large percentage of patients who are suffering from COPD are said to be smokers, but a recent research indicated that 25 % of patients with COPD have never smoked in the United States. This paper provides an in-depth analysis into chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including the historical perspective, symptoms, and causes of COPD,method of spread, how it can be contained, and its implication on the economy, treatment, and efforts being put in place to ensure that the disease is contained.

Keywords

COPD, Chronic, Obstructive. Bronchodilators, Pulmonary, Prevalence, Mortality.

History of the diseases

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been in existence for the last 200 years;the only difference is that its prevalence back in the day was much lower mainly because of thelower presence of risk factors than they are currently. The disease was recognized by the use of stethoscope and spirometer. Spirometer up to date remains the most efficient method of identifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its respond to therapy. The disease is ranked 4th amongst the United States killer disease this shows that the disease has indeed evolved because of the high presence of risk factors. It is estimated by various scientific studies done that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third largest killer in the United States if the situation is not contained (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.38).

The earliest incidences of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 

The very earliest symptom of COPD was experienced in the year 1679 although it was not directly identified. It was described as voluminous lungs. The lungs of the patients were said to be turgid at the time. In 1789, Baillie published a long documentation highlighting the emphysematous lung which put forth the pathology of the disease. Emphysema was the known type of COPD that occurred very long ago. Jon Hutchison is the brain behind the spirometer which was the commonly used instrument to carry out tests on patients to evaluate if they had the COPD in the year 1846. The spirometer is still used in current settings (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.56).

Symptoms of COPD

The symptoms of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease don not always appear in initial periods but rather take the time to show up especially after excessive lung damage. It is very important for a patient or anyone who develops some uncommon symptoms to visit a healthcare facility to conduct tests to be quite sure that there is no such like condition in play (Littner, 2011, p.23).

The most common symptom of COPD is shortness of breath especially after a short physical exercise or even under little tension. This occurs mainly when the effect on the lungs has started being severe and an individual having shortness of breath should consider visiting ahealth facility to be fully aware of the extent of his or her problem (Littner, 2011, p.28).

Another symptom to note is that there is always the presence of mucus in the lungs thus an individual has to clear their throat first thing in the morning on a daily basis.

An individual who has this condition has excessive respiratory infections because the immune system is low and cannot be able to fight even the smallest of the infections in the respiratory system. The disease already weakens the system.

In later stages of the disease, a patient undergoes severe weight loss because the body cannot specifically operate normally as some functionality are already being subjected to numerous activities in fighting the disease thus preventing the other parts of the busy receive the service needed.

Patients are suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also are subjected to chest tightness due to the difficulties that the heart undergoes in ensuring that the breathing system is regulated, and body continues to function normally. However, the massive damage to the lungs makes the whole process even more difficult (Littner, 2011, p.51).

The patients also suffer from blueness of the lips or fingernails otherwise referred to as cyanosis. The condition arose from poor circulation of blood or in situations when the blood supplied has not been properly subjected to all the stages hence missing the importantoxygenation.

Individuals having the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have high chances of experiencing exacerbations, where the symptoms of the disease become worse every single day,and the variations tend to occur for several days or weeks.

It is also important to note that not everyone who has COPD has the symptoms mentioned above, and it is not true that everyone who has the above-mentioned symptoms suffer from the disease. It is imperative for individuals to consider having regular medical checks toknow their physical and mental state about various diseases that tend to have silent symptoms and that the symptoms only arise when the conditions are very critical thus risking their life and state of well-being for other individuals. Medical centers are well equipped with diagnosing equipment thus are authorized to carry out tests on patients to know what type of disease is one suffering from (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.59).

The causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

The prevalence of COPD is recent days has been on the rise, and this can be attributed to the increase in risk factors that are brought about by industrialization. The disease was on thelower side in the 20th century because the risk factors were not as many as currently being witnessed. Individuals are regularly subjected to these conditions making it difficult to control and manage. The causes of the disease range from biological to environmental and it is important to understand the causes so that to be better placed to develop any control measure to deal with these risk factors (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.64).

The most common causes of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a developedcountry is tobacco smoking while in developing countries the COPD occurs to individuals who are exposed to fumes and other strong chemicals and also cooking in poorly ventilated homes.

Research shows that only 25 % of chronic smokers end up developing clinically associatedCOPD. Some smokers often develop lesser-known lung conditions. Many smokers are misdiagnosed to the effect of the presence of COPD but until further tests are conducted to provide a true statement about their conditions. It is a common perception the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly for smokers, but this is far from the truth. The current researchstudies done indicate that lately many non-smokers are being diagnosed with the disease which raises more questions as to what are some of the risk factors associated with this fast growing disease in the United States (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.69).

Biological causatives

Some researches have been conducted indicating that COPD can result from a genetic disorder in an individual. The genetic disorder causes the presence of low levels of a certainprotein cell that is called alpha-1 antitrypsin. This protein cell is made in the liver and secreted straight into the bloodstream to offer protective support to the lungs. Thus, the presence of lower levels the alpha-1 antitrypsin in the body leaves the lungs barely protected and increase the risks of being caught out by the disease with ease. Thus, it is important to conduct various medical tests to be in a better position to deal with the outcome (Littner, 2011, p.88).

Another cause for the chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is the presence of under-treated asthma in an individual’s body. In this situation, the respiratory, immune system is already overworked dealing with asthma making it easier for a different type of disease to easilyenter the body of a patient. In this case, the COPD is said to be an opportunistic disease.

The presence of industrial fumes and chemical all over the place brought about by massive industrialization has become the latest risk factor in causing the COPD. Individuals who leave close to these industries have high chances of developing COPD because they high inhale this fumes and chemicals, which are untreated as they are released into the atmosphere by these industries. In the United States, chemicals and fumes inhalation has become one of the major causative agents of the COPD and the research shows that by the year 20130 if the currentsituation is not contained these will be the highest causative agent for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the United States and all the developed countries (Littner, 2011, p.117).

Method of spread

In the United States, approximately 24 million individuals are infected with this condition. The 12 million individuals have been diagnosed; there are higher chances that many more individuals may be affected by the disease but are not aware of the same because the disease is still in early stages or they are not exposed to highly technological machines that can effectively detect the presence of COPD in the body.

How the lungs are affected by the COPD

In a medically normal person, the inhaled air travels down from the trachea to the lungs through bronchi. Inside the lungs, the tubes divide severally into bronchioles that are muchsmaller. The bronchioles deliver the inhaled air into the alveoli that are otherwise known as air sacs. The air sacs comprise of thin walls that are filled with small blood vessels. The air inhaled thus undergoes the oxygenation process at this level and released into the blood stream filled with oxygen. The lungs, in general, depend on the ability of bronchial tubes to expand and contract as the normal respiratory process continues (Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 34-39).

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease inhibits the elasticity of bronchial tubes and over expand. This leaves some air trapped within the tubes during exhalation process. Thusbringing about difficulties in breathing. The process is not a one-time activity but keeps on reoccurring until the system cannot accommodate anymore-trapped air in the tubes that cause the adverse effects as witnessed among patients. The initial stages of the disease cannot be easily identified because the body is still in its right frame (Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 58).

Methods to contain the disease

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has no cure, but there are measures that canbe undertaken to contain the spread of the disease both at its initial stages and also in itsadvanced stages. The American Lung Association is fully committed to ensuring that patients suffering from the COPD are well-taken care off. The association offers quality resources and information involving the disease where anyone interested can have access and develop the intellectual self. Some of the common methods that individuals can undertake to contain the disease include exercising frequently, taking medication as prescribed by a physician, use of oxygen therapy and attending pulmonary rehabilitations (Murphy and Sethi, 2002, p.43).

Monitor your COPD

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease tends to grow worse over time thus it is very important for a COPD patient to monitor the rates and level of COPD to contain it. It is also to monitor the reactions to various treatment drugs in order to avoid a fatal reaction.

Therapy with medication

People living with COPD can use medication to relieve adverse symptoms and preventthe disease from further progression. COPD patients usually use medication to enable them tohave easy breathing with less energy. The shortness of breath experienced by these patients can be fatal since the heart may not receive the much-needed air to facilitate all the body functionalities. 

Oxygen therapy

Patients suffering from COPD always suffer from inadequate oxygen in the body thus requires a boost in the form of oxygen therapy. The lungs are either blocked or damaged thus,cannot effectively distribute enough oxygen throughout the body effectively. He supplemental oxygen issued increases the levels of pure oxygen in the body so that the lungs can have enough to distribute. Getting extra oxygen can regulate the body functionality into its previous normal activities (Murphy and Sethi, 2002, p.55).

Pulmonary rehabilitation

This rehabilitation program is a six to twelve-week program that is mainly aimed at stabilizing the condition of the patients suffering from COPD. It also includes educational sessions and exercises for COPD patients. The pulmonary rehabilitation is said to have a positive impact on patients’ shortness of breath, quality of life and reduce hospitalization days of patients with COPD (Polkey et.al, 2013, p. 44).

Prevalence of the disease in the United States

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has had an increasing mortality rate among the United States citizens. The disease has gained interest as a major public health concern. The disease is currently under intense research scrutiny because of its ever-increasing prevalence. It is ranked third in the United States most killer diseases. The United States alone is understood to have 24 million individuals with COPD with an aggregate of 54 million globally, but the global analysis is most likely to be hindered by the absence of specialized equipment’s that are normallysued to diagnose the disease (Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 61).

Figure 1: Proportion of USA population with Spirometric evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using criteria from the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) to classify subjects.

Adapted from D. M. Mannino et al. Eur Respir J 2006;27:627-643

Figure 2

From the figure above it is quite evident that the mortality as a result of COPD has been on a steady increase over the years since the year 1999. The male population has a higher mortality rate than female population. This can be attributed to their lifestyles as they are highly exposed to more COPD risk factors than their female counterparts are.

Cost 

Although it is not easy to approximate the costs associated with COPD, the disease has ahuge impact on the general economy including direct costs that are incurred including both inpatient and outpatient. The loss of productivity due to a large percentage of the sick workforcewho dedicate much of their time to treatment, in the year 2007, the health costs that were directed to COPD were estimated at $24 billion and the overall cost burden including lack of productivity was $43 billion. In the year 2010, the medical cost of COPD was estimated to be $ 32.1 billion with prediction studies indicating that united states will incur $ 49 billion regardingmedical costs related to COPD (Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 73).

Treatment

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has no absolute cure. Thus, the patients can only relieve or slow down the disease progress in the body by incorporating various treatment actions. Patients suffering from the disease to help in their breathing and air circulation process in the body can use various medicines. All the treatment medicines are mainly aimed at regulating breathing process and air circulation within the body, the medication that is prescribed for people living with this condition fall under three significant categories (Pauwels et.al, 2012, p.24).

Steroids

Patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary condition to reduce the inflammation that occurs in the airways to facilitate easy breathing and free circulation of air legally use steroids.

Antibiotics

These normal antibiotics are used to treat and control bacterial infections in the respiratory systems in COPD patients. Antibiotics are always preferred because the immune system has already been weakened thus cannot deal even with the smallest of the infections.

Bronchodilators

These are inhalers designed to open up the patient’s airways and facilitate in making breathing much easier for a patient (Pauwels et.al, 2012, p.36).

Current and future educational efforts

Sensitizing the public about the effects the prevalence of COPD in the United States is a positive in ensuring that the disease does not reach the projected rates in the future. American Lung Association has been at the forefront in ensuring that American citizens are sensibly educated about the dangers of COPD and some common risk factors that can be easily avoided. The association has also placed more informational articles about OCPD have been placed on its official website to facilitate easy access to information by everyone who seeks to find out more about the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Pauwels et.al, 2012, p.49).

Scientists and researchers have identified OCPD, as an area of interest, and a public health concern thus is out to find more improved medical solutions and possible ways to control and manage the disease from becoming a number one killer in the United States.

Conclusion

The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is becoming more serious than previously anticipated because of the increased risk factors. The medical practitioners are therefore encouraged to sensitize the public to consider regular medical checkups because some individuals to not have the initial symptoms, but they come to realize when the condition is critical. COPD has no cure thus it can only be regulated so that the disease does not progress into extreme conditions that may be fatal.