Blog

Sociology Week 6-8 Discussions

Sociology Week 6-8 Discussions

SOCIOLOGY OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Week 6 Discussion

“Education.” Please respond to the following:

Based on the lecture and Webtext materials, address the following:

Outline the most significant obstacles to obtaining an education in developing countries. Suggest at least two (2) reasons why education should be a priority in the developing world. Next, propose significant overall strategies – aside from building more schools – that those in leadership positions in developing countries may use in order to help their people escape poverty through education.

Week 7 Discussion

“Health.” Please respond to the following:

Based on the lecture and Webtext materials, address the following:

Describe your understanding of the north / south divide as it relates to the health of populations in developing counties. Determine specific steps — aside from building more clinics — that the leadership in developing countries can take to improve their health care systems and, as a consequence, the health of the population.

Week 8 Discussion

“The Trouble with Aid.” Please respond to the following:

Based on the lecture and Webtext materials, address the following:

Identify the most significant problems with the way foreign aid is presently dispensed by international lending institutions. Then, discuss at least three (3) recommendations that you would make to remedy this situation so that food, medical, and financial assistance actually reaches the poor.

Please respond to at least one (1) post from your peers.

The post Sociology Week 6-8 Discussions appeared first on best homeworkhelp.

Business Management Weeks 6-8 Discussions

Business Management Weeks 6-8 Discussions

BUSINESS MGMT CONCEPTS

Week 6 Discussion

“Have You Been Influenced by a Leader?”

Please respond to the following:

What organizational leader has had the most positive influence in your life, and why?

How would you describe what this person contributes to your life in three (3) words?

Write a minimum of 300 words for your initial response and then post to at least two (2) of your classmates’ posts.

Week 7 Discussion

“Do You “Like” Your Team Dynamics?”

Please respond to the following:

Watch the video Mark Zuckerberg on Team Dynamics

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjvuq6mf28g?feature=oembed&w=1200&h=675]

Express whether you agree with Mark Zuckerberg’s opinion on managing team dynamics.

Explain whether you believe the team dynamics Mark Zuckerberg experienced are unique to only Millennials (Generation Y) or to teams working in the technology field.

Write a minimum of 300 words for your initial response and then post to at least two (2) of your classmates’ posts.

Week 8 Discussion

“Who Helped You Reach That Finish Line?”

Please respond to the following:

Identify three (3) examples that demonstrate the main reasons why workplace diversity is important to a company’s culture and performance.

Describe one (1) workplace situation where your supervisor or coworker motivated you to perform better for the organization.

Explain the above situation, how you felt up to that point, and the motivation technique and approach that your supervisor or coworker used to help inspire you.

Write a minimum of 300 words for your initial response.

The post Business Management Weeks 6-8 Discussions appeared first on graduatepaperhelp.

Business Management Weeks 6-8 Discussions

Business Management Weeks 6-8 Discussions

BUSINESS MGMT CONCEPTS

Week 6 Discussion

“Have You Been Influenced by a Leader?”

Please respond to the following:

What organizational leader has had the most positive influence in your life, and why?

How would you describe what this person contributes to your life in three (3) words?

Write a minimum of 300 words for your initial response and then post to at least two (2) of your classmates’ posts.

Week 7 Discussion

“Do You “Like” Your Team Dynamics?”

Please respond to the following:

Watch the video Mark Zuckerberg on Team Dynamics

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjvuq6mf28g?feature=oembed&w=1200&h=675]

Express whether you agree with Mark Zuckerberg’s opinion on managing team dynamics.

Explain whether you believe the team dynamics Mark Zuckerberg experienced are unique to only Millennials (Generation Y) or to teams working in the technology field.

Write a minimum of 300 words for your initial response and then post to at least two (2) of your classmates’ posts.

Week 8 Discussion

“Who Helped You Reach That Finish Line?”

Please respond to the following:

Identify three (3) examples that demonstrate the main reasons why workplace diversity is important to a company’s culture and performance.

Describe one (1) workplace situation where your supervisor or coworker motivated you to perform better for the organization.

Explain the above situation, how you felt up to that point, and the motivation technique and approach that your supervisor or coworker used to help inspire you.

Write a minimum of 300 words for your initial response.

The post Business Management Weeks 6-8 Discussions appeared first on best homeworkhelp.

Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie

Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie

In Vicki Marie’s essay, we witness the process by which an outsider attempts to understand and adjust to living within another culture. With enthusiasm and respect, Vicki moved to Samoa, only to discover that her preferences about a variety of common social experiences (greeting others, resolving conflicts, desiring privacy, displaying courtesy and respect) have different meanings among her Samoan colleagues and neighbors. Vicki’s essay also introduces some of the ethical issues that inevitably occur when crossing cultures: how and when should one conform to behaviors that are inconsistent with one’s own beliefs, values, and experiences?

Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie

In 1988 I was an adjunct instructor at several nearby colleges and universities. One day, while commuting between campuses, it occurred to me that while I was waiting for a full-time position, I could be teaching abroad. I researched overseas teaching opportunities and sent out a dozen resumes. I received three job offers. The assistant professorship of language arts at the College of Samoa was the most appealing. I accepted an 18-month contract, left California a few months later, and arrived in Samoa in January 1989.

Except for holiday travel, I had lived in California my entire life and knew little about Samoa. I read eagerly about Samoan history, geography, and culture, and talked with people who had lived in Samoa and taught at the college. Yet I arrived believing that my Samoan students would be motivated by the same values and would aspire to the same goals that I considered worthwhile. I was surprised to discover that my worldview was uniquely European American and my attitude ethnocentric. Samoa became the classroom and textbook that taught me about cultural relativity and intercultural communication. I discovered I had much to learn about Samoa and even more about myself.

Background

The U.S. and Samoan governments have been intertwined since the end of World War II, yet many Americans are unaware of the vast northern ocean area of Oceania. Samoa is one of many tiny islands that comprises a string of more than 2,100 islands and atolls lying in four major archipelagos: the Mariana, the Caroline, the Marshall, and the Kiribati islands. These islands are scattered across an area as large as the continental United States, yet they are so small that their combined land mass amounts to approximately 1,000 square miles, about the size of Rhode Island. The inhabited islands are home to more than 375,000 people, who make up five constitutional governments. While these political divisions also represent linguistic, ethnic, and cultural differences, the people native to the islands are all classified as Micronesians.

Despite 175 years of contact with foreigners, Samoans have maintained their traditional politics, languages, and family organizations. Changes, though, are inevitable. As a result, I found island life to be an amalgam of traditional and Western influences. Samoans wear Western-style clothing, drive imported cars, eat in Japanese restaurants, and socialize in American-style bars. Yet these same people are equally comfortable wearing traditional island lava lavas, reciting ancient folklore in native languages, and masterfully pounding sakau, the local kava drink.

Cultural Patterns

Although Samoans can move easily between ancient traditions and modern ideas, they have distinct value systems unlike those in the West. I found that it wasn’t always easy to consider-much less appreciate-our contrasting worldviews. And what huge differences in worldviews we had! The following list summarizes some of the significant differences in cultural assumptions that I encountered while living among Samoans:

Samoan

European American

Nature will provide for us in time.

We must change our world, control nature, and make it work for humankind.

What will be, will be. Human life is controlled by destiny.

We create our own future by what we do.

There’s no use rushing away from what I’m doing now. There’s always plenty of time.

I have to hurry and meet somebody now. See you later.

Worry about tomorrow when tomorrow comes.

Save for the future.

Work a little, rest a little. Whatever you do, try to keep other people happy.

If I work hard enough, someday I’ll make it to the top.

What I have is yours. What you have is mine

What’s mine belong to me.

The wise person is one who knows his place in the world, respects authority, and does what he is supposed to do.

Sensible people strike out on their own, learn to do things for themselves, and make their own decisions.

The feelings of others are more important than an honest answer.

Always tell the truth, no matter how much it hurts.

My life belongs to the family and God.

I am a god.

As you can tell from this list, the potential for intercultural misunderstandings is great. I found these cultural differences to be interesting, irritating, amusing, or stressful, depending on the situation.

As time passed, I moved through predictable and trying phases of adjustment and assimilation. The first few months I was euphoric just to be in Samoa, and everything seemed perfect and beautiful. I walked around with a big smile on my face and wrote letters to my family that recounted every blissful event. My euphoria plummeted the morning I discovered two flat tires on my Jeep. As a prank, the boys in the village had let the air out of the tires. I took it very personally and cried. A few days later, someone stole my sandals off the porch. I wasn’t sure what to expect next in my new surroundings. I coped with the uncertainty by writing letters to everyone I knew “back home,” socializing primarily with American and European expatriates and occasionally retreating to the solitude of my bungalow. Eventually I settled into a routine in which uncertainty became entertaining more than threatening. I reached out to people with varied cultural backgrounds and broadened my social circle.

I enjoyed new cultural experiences. I drank sakau and ate eel at feasts, visited with neighbors, hiked in the rainforest, learned to scuba dive, and enjoyed the challenge of teaching English to Samoan students. With each experience I gained valuable insights into the culture and into myself. As I learned about Samoan ways, I came to better understand my own cultural conditioning.

My American assumptions were often laughable in the Samoan context. I felt anxious about wasting time and reprimanded students who were late to class. I was impatient when meeting times were disregarded. I took pride in accomplishing a list of goals each day. Then one day a Samoan dean questioned why another American professor always walked so fast. “What’s his hurry all the time?” the dean wondered aloud. Knowing that I easily outpaced my American colleague, I realized the question was indirectly aimed at my own task-oriented style. I felt embarrassed about looking foolish to the dean, but it seemed right to use my time wisely.

My notions of being direct and straightforward also were challenged. One day my friend Maggie stood me up at the hospital. I had agreed to assist her by talking with a physician on her behalf. She had health problems that she didn’t fully understand and agreed to meet me at the hospital for an 11 A.M. appointment. I took a taxi and arrived at the hospital 10 minutes early. After reading a book for 20 minutes I roamed around the hospital, looking for Maggie. I was concerned and wondered if a problem was keeping her from being on time. After I’d been there 45 minutes, Maggie’s brother found me, staring toward the main door, and told me that Maggie was sorry but she couldn’t make it that day. I was disappointed and frustrated. Unlike the earlier interaction with the dean, the cultural implications were not obvious. Months later, after observing similar incidents between others, I realized that Maggie never intended to meet me that day. Apparently she felt that saying “no” would have insulted me.

Political Structure

Shortly after moving to Samoa, I discovered that an important key to understanding Samoan culture lies in the pervasive traditional political structure, which is a hierarchical social system with strongly embedded political and relational values and social norms. Even when Samoan communities are affected by the maneuvering of government politicians, the traditional system factors strongly into negotiations and outcomes of most political transactions. For example, the negotiations required for paving the road that encircled the city were lengthy and complicated. Government officials proposed a plan that had to be approved by each of the five districts’ leaders. The negotiations for land rights took months of meetings, discussions, gifts, and other traditional courtesies. Eventually, after each traditional chief felt satisfied that his community had been sufficiently compensated, the road construction began.

Typically, each district on an island operates within a status hierarchy: hereditary nobility, landed gentry, and commoners. Each island district is ruled by a nanmwarki, or “high chief.” Below the nanmwarki is a group of high-titled nobles. A second set of nobles is headed by the nahnken, or “talking chief.” Each male title has a female equivalent. The male leaders, however, are the decision makers and the most highly revered in traditional culture. They are bestowed with much respect; others must address them in a “high language,” which is an honorific language with special vocabulary reserved for nobility and authority.

Commoners and outsiders like me are expected to stand when talking to nobility, to respond to rather than initiate communication, and to cast our eyes downward to convey humility and respect. One evening I was introduced to a nahnken who had entered the restaurant where I was dining with a colleague. As the nahnken approached us, my friend quickly coached me: “Stand up, shake his hand, and cast your eyes down.” I reluctantly followed his direction, feeling very awkward. In that instance I was abiding by the local custom but violating behaviors that I considered to be courteous and comfortable. I prefer to use direct eye contact and a sincere smile and believe such gestures conveyed confidence, honesty, and mutual respect. At that moment, I struggled to avoid eye contact and felt resentment and tightness in my stomach as I tried to abide by social norms that collided with my own standards of equality and status. Gender Roles

Unlike in U.S. society, where equality is the desired value, the roles of men and women in traditional Samoan cultures are quite well defined. Many gender roles were apparent. In the morning, women hung their laundry, prepared meals, and swept their living areas. Men returned from early-morning fishing outings to repair homes or head for their jobs in town. During the day, men built houses, repaired canoes, sailed, fished, and gathered breadfruit and coconuts. Women prepared meals, cared for the children, cleaned, and tended the taro patches. In the early evenings, men met at the “men’s house” for socializing or all-male community decision-making. After their homemaking chores, women played cards or walked through the village, visiting with friends along the way.

In business and government centers on the more developed islands, many women have moved into the workplace, operating businesses or working in government offices. As women’s roles have changed, so have gender communication norms. Traditional hierarchies still dictate the intrinsic status of women, but the subtleties are not obvious to an outsider. I learned about social status by talking to Samoan men and women.

Traditionally, social expectations in Samoa dictate where and to whom women may speak, but norms have shifted as women have taken responsible positions in community affairs. In more traditional settings, however, predictable gender communication norms remain intact. Women, for instance, are not supposed to speak during village or community meetings. Above all, women should not challenge or confront men. As a European American woman, I found that notion foreign. I learned the hard way about hierarchical gender communication in Samoa.

My bungalow was situated between the only sakau bar and beer bar in the village. Over the winter holiday season, both bars had ongoing parties. Because sakau is a soporific, the more the patrons drank, the quieter they became. The beer had the opposite effect on the patrons in the second bar. As the evening progressed, people and music became louder, and the noise continued until dawn. After two sleepless nights, I approached the bar owner with a direct but courteous plea to end the party at a reasonable hour. He reluctantly agreed to turn the music off by 10 P.M. and close the bar at midnight. I felt relieved, but that evening the music continued past midnight. I walked over to the bar, asked to speak to the owner, and pleaded with him to turn off the music. I made, I thought, a reasonable and polite request, but the music continued into the early morning.

On my way to campus that morning I was confronted by the owner’s daughter, who accused me of casting shame on her father. Although the owner and I had had a private conversation, my directness was perceived as aggressive and disrespectful. I tried to explain my position to the daughter, but she wouldn’t listen. As an outsider and a woman, I had overstepped my boundaries and never had a chance of persuading the owner to comply with my request. Interestingly, my landlord, a well-respected businessman, eventually intervened. From that night on, the owner conformed to a 10 P.M. curfew, and I finally got some sleep.

Even in family settings, women must temper their comments. A Pohnpeian colleague once explained that if she was bitterly angry with her brother’s wife, she would not dare say anything to her brother about her feelings. To do so would be disrespectful to her brother and would cast shame on herself. She said she limits her conversations with her brother to “asking for his help or advice.”

I learned that women who initiate conversations with men are considered forward or flirtatious. The college maintenance man went out of his way to help me set up my office and bungalow. I thought he was very nice-until he made a pass at me. I was informed that my outgoing personality and friendly small talk had been interpreted as romantic interest. I thought it was silly, so I just ignored the misunderstanding. To avoid an unnecessary conflict, however, I was courteously warned by my Samoan friends about the man’s jealous Chuukese wife and told to avoid him.

A similar situation occurred after I stopped one day to look at a hotel construction site near the lagoon. One of the owners, who was married to the college secretary, was on the premises. I was pleased to meet him and chatted about his new hotel. A few days later, his wife told me that he thought I was flirting with him. Thankfully, she didn’t take him seriously. My Samoan friends trusted me and guided me when necessary to avoid misperceptions. I was grateful for the support as I maneuvered my way through a new culture.

I learned, for instance, that despite the cultural constraint of gender, Samoan women hold a position of power and community esteem in island life. When a dispute occurs, the first-born woman, who is the female head of her clan, is sent to settle the conflict and reconcile the two sides. Her judgments are almost always obeyed, because if they are not there is the risk that the conflict could reemerge to plague the community.

True to their collectivist nature, the Samoan people consider social harmony an important cultural value that is critical to community welfare. Women are called on to ensure that such harmony prevails. Harmony must prevail in this culture! Family and Children

Like most European Americans, I tend to belong to several unrelated groups. Samoans, however, belong to one relatively unchanging group: their family. Having grown up in a small family I found it intriguing that Samoan families include all relatives in their clan. The extended family is composed of generations of matrilineal relationships. Several members of the extended family commonly share a single household. The larger clan is composed of descendants of a common female ancestor. As a Westerner, I was confused by the matrilineal nature of Samoan families. Descendants always come through the woman and are considered members of the mother’s clan. Children refer to their mothers, aunts, grandmothers, and other significant women as “mom.” Their siblings and cousins are considered “brothers and sisters.” When the girl next door told me that she had 19 brothers and sisters, I laughed because I thought she was joking. When I asked Millie, the daughter of my friend Maggie, how many brothers and sisters she has, she began counting on her fingers but finally threw up her and hands and exclaimed, ” I don’t know a lot!”

Rank in the clan comes from birth order, not age. The children of the oldest daughter will have higher rank than the children of a younger daughter, regardless of their ages. For example, if the older daughter’s son is 25 years old, and the youngest daughter’s son is 35 years old, the older daughter’s son would have the higher rank. He would be regarded as a big brother by the older but lower-ranking man. Rank for females follows the same pattern. Grandparents, by virtue of their position in the family, are highly honored and treated with great respect, love, and care by their children and grandchildren.

Respect is the most important value to Samoans. It is expressed in the guiding rule to “be humble; don’t put yourself up.” This social rule, which extends to all relationships, discouraged our college freshmen from initiating conversation with sophomores. In some circumstances, though, such as in a classroom, students switched to an egalitarian style for practical reasons. But they did so with discomfort.

I asked my college students to explain status norms. One responded, “The rule about talking to higher-rank people is to be polite. We honor the higher title person.” Another said, “We use high language for leaders and important people like the elders. If you don’t use appropriate language you are considered impolite and disrespectful. Following the rules in our culture is very important, which is why I don’t like to communicate at feasts with traditional leaders.”

In general, only a few expectations constrain children’s behavior. Parents allow their children to do whatever they please as long as they display respect for others. One afternoon I sat visiting with my friend while her three young children played nearby. During our four-hour conversation, her children would stop to listen to us talk but did not once interrupt. Occasionally my friend or I would speak to her kids. They responded immediately to their mother but were more hesitant toward me.

Respect is the value embedded in the strict rules that prohibit children from initiating conversations with elders. An elder is loosely defined as anyone older than the child. When responding to an elder, children are expected to use “high language.” They use honorific language to answer their parents, grandparents, or older siblings, especially the first-born son. Samoan children will rarely vie for attention or interrupt adults. So, although children are included in all community events, they are typically “seen but not heard.”

If a child does something displeasing, the parent will usually attempt to modify the behavior by making the child feel ashamed. For instance, if a girl uses her mother’s money to buy something without permission, the parent may talk about the child within her hearing range to make the child feel ashamed for spending the family’s money. Disputes among family members are strongly discouraged. Children are taught this value at a very early age and are made to feel great shame if a dispute occurs. Courtesy, respect, and politeness are constant themes found in each household and in the community. Intentional rudeness or malevolent behaviors are looked down on. A person exhibiting such behaviors is considered amalgam tekia, a Chuukese phrase meaning “haughty.”

Samoan parents do not praise their children for good deeds. Children might hear indirectly from a third party how pleased their parents are with their behavior, but Samoans find it awkward to express and receive compliments directly. I would tell children how beautiful or talented they were and would be surprised to hear in reply “I’m not.” My Samoan friends were more likely to express their appreciation through caring, gifts, or favors. In fact, providing enough food is the primary way in which a parent shows affection for a child. Being hungry would imply to others that the child is not taken care of properly and is, therefore, unloved.

Family members who are hungry are expected to help themselves to food. But a hungry person may be too embarrassed to ask for food, for fear of implying that the family is neglectful. To avoid embarrassing family members, Samoan people assume that any person coming into the house, including a visitor, is hungry and is thus greeted with an offer of food. Family members generally serve themselves from the communal bowl. Eating together goes beyond the mere intake of food to satisfy hunger. The spirit of sharing is a way of showing oneness and, more significantly, mutual trust and love.

Displays of affection among family members, as practiced by many groups in the United States, do not exist in Samoan families. Children display affection for their parents through loyalty and by performing certain duties or responsibilities for the family, such as sweeping the floor without being asked. Although Samoans seldom hug or kiss children, a mother will lovingly nuzzle her child’s nose.

I attended a church wedding and was surprised that the Western tradition of the husband kissing the bride was eliminated from the ceremony. I was told later that public displays of affection are considered inappropriate. Holding hands with others outside the family circle is more common, especially among those of the same gender. The only time one is likely to observe hugging and kissing in a family is when an adult is playing with a baby. In fact, children are not allowed to observe kissing. Millie told me that it made her shake (nervous) when she saw Americans kissing, because it was bad. I had seen her cover her eyes during a kissing scene in a film. She told me that her mother said she should never see kissing. I heard stories of teenage girls being punished for inadvertently witnessing Westerners kissing at the airport. The taboo is apparently a strategy for discouraging promiscuity, although I am not sure how well it works. Language

Many language differences exist in Samoa, although each language derives from a common Malayo-Polynesian source. Several major tribal languages, with dialect variations, are spoken in Samoa. The islanders I encountered knew their native language and at least one other language. On the islands that were heavily influenced by Japan, inhabitants know some conversational Japanese. Because of the diversity of native languages, English has emerged as the lingua franca used in government, education, and other intercultural contexts. For most Samoans, English is a second language; for others, it is their fourth or fifth and, thus, the language with which they feel the least secure.

At the College of Samoa students appeared confident when switching between tribal languages but seemed reluctant when communicating in English to me. I spoke with students who had varying degrees of English proficiency. Some disclosed that they were afraid of appearing “stupid” to native English speakers.

I taught an evening class for two weeks before I realized that the majority of students didn’t understand me. They pretended to understand by simply nodding and smiling. When I spoke to them individually after class, I realized that in fact they understood very little English. Samoans who live and work in city centers and who have frequent contact with native English speakers are able to express themselves as clearly in English as they do in their native languages. When they speak fluent English, it is easy to forget that our cultural perceptions may actually block clear communication.

I sometimes wondered about the illusion of shared meaning that existed during my intercultural conversations. There were times I’d expect a particular outcome but it wouldn’t occur. I learned, over time, not to take the language for granted. I tried to be empathetic toward students who spoke in a foreign language, especially when I heard them struggling to express themselves clearly. Actually, I admired their ability to speak multiple languages.

Communication Norms

Samoans seem to be simultaneously extroverted and introverted. As a group Samoans find it easy to talk with others, and they perceive themselves to be friendly, dramatic, and animated. They also appear interested in others, demonstrating goodwill when they communicate.

Because it is difficult to accept compliments, Samoans generally do not openly give compliments. They admire people silently or indirectly. Generally, if a person wants to compliment another, he or she will pass the compliment through a relative rather than acknowledge the person directly.

When I praised our student clerk for a job well done she giggled, blushed, and turned away from me. I observed the same reaction when I openly praised students for well-written essays or other course work. One day in front of my office, I encouraged a young man to present his exceptionally good speech at our upcoming speech festival. He turned his body away from me as he flipped his hand chest-high in a gesture that meant to communicate “stop” or “go away,” because it was difficult for him to accept the compliment. Each time I encountered these common nonverbal responses, they were coupled with self-effacing statements that were said with a smile, but it was quite clear that the student was extremely uncomfortable. One student explained: “People are uncomfortable with praise because they do not want to be perceived as thinking they are `big’ or better than anybody else.” Modesty is an important characteristic of the Samoan personality. Samoans believe that it is generally virtuous to be quiet. Even in childbirth, a woman is expected to keep silent and show as little pain as possible.

Samoans find very few situations in which they can show pride in their accomplishments or possessions without fear of criticism. This attitude was evident at the conclusion of our college speech festival, when all the student speakers disappeared immediately after the awards ceremony. The young man who won first place for his persuasive speech left to avoid criticism for pretentiousness or “acting big.” Runners-up left because they felt ashamed. In a collectivist community where such public competition is rare, the fear of ridicule or gossip seems sufficiently strong to enforce an apparent pattern of exaggerated modesty, humility, and shame.

Samoan communication style uses less verbal exchange and looks for implicit meaning in the situation. In contrast, my European American communication style is one in which talkativeness is valued and the message is conveyed explicitly. In everyday encounters I commonly misinterpreted silence as introversion, shyness, or disinterest. Over time, I better understood notions of context as I heard conversations similar to one between our department secretary and a European American professor. As the professor walked away from the exchange, the secretary grimaced. When I asked, “What’s wrong?” she answered, “He talks too much.” She explained that talkative people are less respected in society. People who are reserved or quiet are admired. This greatly influences the way in which Samoans conduct themselves in public. “Generally,” she explained, “people rarely initiate conversations, particularly if they are meeting someone new. During childhood we are told not to speak to adults, and if we did speak we were to be careful of the language to be used.” Talkativeness casts shame on oneself and one’s family. Such perceived threats contribute greatly to Samoans’ willingness to communicate with others.

Nonverbal Communication

Differences in nonverbal communication, or body language, are often subtle and can be the source of intercultural misunderstanding. During my first few days at the College of Samoa, the division secretary was on sick leave. When she returned I introduced myself and asked, “Are you feeling better?”

She answered “Yes” nonverbally by raising and lowering her eyebrows. I interpreted her response to mean “What did you say?” So I repeated the question a little more slowly, and again she raised her brows. I asked the question a third time, receiving the same nonverbal response. Out of frustration, I finally said, “I hope you are feeling better soon.” About a week later, when I learned that raised eyebrows mean “yes,” I realized that the secretary must have thought me dense for repeatedly asking the same question.

Samoans use the same shake of the head as Americans as a way to say “no.” A frown accompanied by a wave of the hand at chest level is an emphatic “no!” or “stop it!” Samoans throw their heads slightly back and to the side to indicate “over there.” Depending on the context of the question, the response could mean a few blocks away or the next island over. The apparent ambiguity of that particular response was sometimes confusing. Similarly, if I, as an outsider, were to summon a Samoan by repeatedly curling my index finger upward, the gesture would imply that the receiver had the status of an animal. More than a few times, I had to control my impulse to use that common American gesture.

Much more difficult was remembering that the proper nonverbal gesture for summoning someone in Samoa is to make a downward movement of the hand from the level of the head to the shoulder. The first time a Samoan beckoned me in this manner, I thought he was telling me to “go away.” I stood in utter confusion until he finally asked me to “come here.” The verbal message was need. Height

I often learned through my mistakes. I once reached out to ruffle a little boy’s hair only to have my hand quickly pulled away by a colleague who saved me from cultural transgression. From my American perspective, I was expressing affection toward the child. I was surprised to learn that I was conveying the exact opposite meaning by violating a Samoan perception of height, an important concept in Samoan cultures. Generally speaking, the higher something or someone is, the more sacred it is. The head is the highest part of the human body; to touch another person’s head is considered disrespectful, and such behavior is strictly prohibited.

Height also acts as a type of checks-and-balances system. When passing others who are sitting, Chuukese people say “Tirow” (excuse me) or “Tirow wom” (high language used to excuse oneself) to elders and others higher in rank. “Tirow wom” is usually accompanied by a bow from the waist, which demonstrates respect by lowering one’s height in relation to the people who are sitting.

In the Chuukese culture, a woman is forbidden to be physically higher than a man at any time. I heard Westerners mistakenly categorize this behavior as sexist. From the Chuukese perspective, however, the behavior is practical: A woman should never stand when a man is sitting because she runs the risk of drawing attention to her thighs. A woman’s thighs are considered sexually stimulating by Samoan men. Therefore, her behavior would appear sexually suggestive.

If a woman’s brother is sitting, she would either walk past him at a distance while bowing at the waist, walk past him on her knees, crawl, or simply sit down and wait for him to stand up. She would not, under any circumstances, directly ask him to stand up, because that would imply that he didn’t respect her. She could, however, ask another person to point out her presence to him or wait until he noticed her. As an outsider, I was generally exempt from these strict cultural rules and was excused when I inadvertently violated social expectations. Still, I tried my best to be sensitive to cultural norms.

Before I left California, I read about the Samoan perception of female thighs. I was prepared to teach while wearing long skirts and to play while wearing modest, knee length walking shorts. I found most outsiders to be equally sensitive toward this cultural norm. Peace Corps volunteers and other expatriate women adopted the Samoan style of swimming in skirts. It was easier to swim or dive out on the reef, away from the island, because we could swim in bathing suits and cover up with lava-lauas (wrapped skirts) as soon as we got within sight of the island. One afternoon, while returning to the lagoon in our boat, some friends and I were engrossed in conversation and didn’t remember to cover our legs. We snapped back to reality as we passed the docks and were jeered with whistles and wolf-calls. Interestingly, my friends and I felt very exposed and embarrassed and quickly learned to abide by cultural tradition.

Time

As members of a “doing” culture, European Americans are very concerned with time, compartmentalizing it carefully to avoid wasting it. Samoa is a “being” culture. Samoans are more likely to listen to their natural impulses-to eat when they are hungry and sleep when they are tired-than to the hands of a clock. Cooking, fishing, and other tasks are determined by mood, weather, or ocean tides. In the remote villages and outer islands, much time is spent relaxing and socializing. The men meet to discuss community affairs or play games. The women weave or socialize over a card game. I had difficulty relating to people in the village who appeared to spend a great part of the day just sitting around doing nothing. I would have been bored but, interestingly, the word “bored” does not exist in Samoan tribal languages.

In city centers, where people are expected to abide by work hours and class times, Samoans find the transition to schedules unnatural and confining. It is not considered unusual or rude for Samoans to come later than their appointed time. It would, however, be unusual to meet a Samoan who was in a hurry or anxious over a deadline. Because European Americans typically view time as a commodity, the time issue causes many misunderstandings. It took most of the first semester for me to understand that student tardiness was not a sign of disrespect or apathy.

During the fall semester I was asked to present a communication workshop to local radio announcers. I had very little time to design the workshop, so I gave the support staff the course materials to duplicate and assemble. Two days before the workshop was scheduled I discovered the duplicating hadn’t been completed. I expressed my concern about having the materials on time but was assured that they would be ready. I heard indirectly that if I was in such a great hurry I should do the job myself. Surprisingly, the materials were delivered one hour before I left for the radio station.

I arrived at the station ten minutes early and found only one person there. The general manager and three announcers trickled in over the next 20 minutes. As I was about to begin, the electricity shut down, leaving us without air conditioning or lights. The general manager suggested we move the workshop to the college campus. By the time we drove to the campus and settled into a classroom, 15 minutes were left of the scheduled time. I had time only for a brief introduction and an ice-breaker activity. I was disappointed that we lost virtually an entire session and that my preparation had been in vain, yet none of the participants seemed inconvenienced.

Space/Privacy The Samoan lifestyle is communal. Traditionally, many Samoans live in shared areas where everything is used collectively. This idea is emphasized in the Chuukese proverb: “Meta aai epwe oomw, mea oomw epwe aai,” or “What is mine is yours, and what is yours is mine.” This notion remains an ideal cultural value but is mostly theoretical. In reality, Samoans have personal property and regard it as such. Personal property may be loaned to others, but it is considered proper to ask the rightful owner for permission. Most of the time the owner will grant permission. In fact, about the only time the owner would withhold permission is when he or somebody else was using the object in question.

While the concept of private property does exist, Samoans tend to be less attached to their belongings than are European Americans. Acquaintances who were Peace Corps volunteers said this was a frustrating cultural difference that they found difficult to accept. They explained that if they wanted to keep personal possessions such as hair clips, books, or cassette players for themselves, they would have to put them away in a private place. Their Samoan family’s attitude toward such items was one of detachment, which is generally true for most Samoans. For instance, if something is borrowed and subsequently lost or damaged, the owner will not express anger, because people are much more important than possessions. In contrast, European Americans tend to react to losing a possession with varying degrees of anger and, depending on the object, may perceive a loss almost as a loss of part of oneself. In the collectivist Samoan societies, in contrast, the personality of each person is well known, but people express their individuality by their behaviors rather than their possessions.

The issue of privacy was a challenge for me in Samoa. As a typical European American, I highly value my privacy, but the concept of privacy is strange in Samoan cultures because togetherness is the norm. Although most Samoans have been exposed to American cultural patterns and accept them, they still do not fully comprehend the need for “quiet time” or privacy. Being alone is generally associated with strong emotions-for instance, avoiding an individual or group to keep from expressing strong anger toward others or hiding because of feelings of sadness or great shame. Samoans may also think that someone desiring solitude is mas or “physically sick and wants to be alone.”

The day I moved into my two-bedroom bungalow, the landlord sent his son over to make some repairs on the house. His three sisters followed him over, walked into my living room, tied up the curtains to let the breeze in, and sat down for a chat among themselves. They were as relaxed and natural as if they were in their own home. I, on the other hand, didn’t quite know what to do. Should I offer them something to drink? Make small talk? Try to entertain them in some way? The young women were fully engaged in their conversation in tribal dialect, so I retreated uncomfortably to my back room to work until everyone was ready to leave. On other occasions, the children in the neighborhood would pile onto my back porch to watch the video playing on my TV. They seemed as interested in what I was doing as in the plot of the film. After some time, I noticed my boundaries relaxing, but I was never fully comfortable with the territorial differences. The most disturbing violations of my privacy were when the young men in the neighborhood looked into my windows at night. The nocturnal habits of a single menwai (outsider) woman were apparently entertaining. Night-Crawling

The Chuukese term for night-crawling is teefan. This is the behavior in which a young man sneaks to a young woman’s house at night to meet her. Strictly speaking, the man could go night-crawling only when the couple had made an arrangement. It is expected that the woman will help the man in their attempts to get together. In days gone by, the process was much easier. Houses were thatched, and all the man had to do was poke his carved wooden “love stick” through the thatched wall and await an answer. The woman could either invite him in or ask him to wait outside by a simple push or pull of the stick. It was obviously necessary that the woman know the love-stick design of her intended lover.

Today the ritual is complicated by cinder-block or wooden walls that make the love-stick ineffective. Night-crawling continues but with an arrangement made between the lovers. Frequently I discovered evidence of such trysts near my bungalow. Large banana leaves had been used to pad the ground where young couples met. Crawling around without such prearrangement constitutes inkikich or peeping. The boys in my village occasionally whistled into my windows and on one occasion actually invited my visiting mother to join them in the night air. She just laughed. But night-crawling can be risky, and a man who night-crawls should expect to meet challenges. It is perfectly acceptable for the man to be beaten up by the woman’s relatives if he is caught.

Conclusion I moved back to California in 1990, when I accepted a teaching position at San Joaquin Delta College in Stockton. The first day on campus I met a visiting professor that had been a Peace Corps volunteer in Samoa. He encouraged me to teach intercultural communication because, he said, “It’s an important course, great fun, and a forum for Samoan tales.”

I am glad I took his advice; because each time I share a story with students I am transported to Samoa. I remember the riches I gained by living among Samoans: I was able to move beyond my ethnocentrism and better understand and value variations of human behavior. I became aware of the culturally programmed beliefs, values, and norms that determine my behaviors. Most importantly, I developed lasting intercultural relationships.

Recently, my husband and I invited Millie, now eleven years old, to live with us. She arrived from Samoa eighteen months ago and is attending the elementary school near our home. These months together have been joyous for us all but particularly meaningful to me. Millie is Maggie’s daughter Maggie, my dear friend and former student in Samoa. I consider Samoa my second home and Maggie and her children my Samoan family.

Now that Millie is with us, I have a renewed sense of connection with my Samoan home and family. Each day with her brings discoveries about our life experiences and cultural assumptions. As I help her learn about American culture, I develop a deeper dimension of love for Samoa and a greater appreciation for cultural diversity and relativity.

The post Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie appeared first on best homeworkhelp.

Write a five paragraph analysis essay on the article “What Is Marriage?”

Write a five paragraph analysis essay on the article “What Is Marriage?”

Write a five paragraph analysis essay on the article “What Is Marriage?” Introduction paragraph: Introduce the name of the article and the author’s name. Give a brief summary of the article. Last sentence in this paragraph will be your thesis statement. In your thesis statement state whether you feel this is a well written article or not along with the three approaches: ethos, pathos, and logos. First body paragraph: Give a topic sentence using ethos (credibility of the writertrustworthy). Zero in on an area of the article where you feel Wolfson is a credibly or trustworthy writer. Give your reader some information summary of that section. State the quote that best proves your opinion. Now analyze the quote. Second body paragraph: Give a topic sentence using pathos (appeal to emotion). Zero in on an area of the article where you feel Wolfson is a trustworthy writer. Give your reader some information/summary of that section. State the quote that best proves your opinion. Now analyze the quote. Third body paragraph: Give a topic sentence usin logos (an appeal to logic, persuading an audience by reason). Zero’ in on an area of the article where you feel Wolfson is a trustworthy writer.

Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie

Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie

In Vicki Marie’s essay, we witness the process by which an outsider attempts to understand and adjust to living within another culture. With enthusiasm and respect, Vicki moved to Samoa, only to discover that her preferences about a variety of common social experiences (greeting others, resolving conflicts, desiring privacy, displaying courtesy and respect) have different meanings among her Samoan colleagues and neighbors. Vicki’s essay also introduces some of the ethical issues that inevitably occur when crossing cultures: how and when should one conform to behaviors that are inconsistent with one’s own beliefs, values, and experiences?

Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie

In 1988 I was an adjunct instructor at several nearby colleges and universities. One day, while commuting between campuses, it occurred to me that while I was waiting for a full-time position, I could be teaching abroad. I researched overseas teaching opportunities and sent out a dozen resumes. I received three job offers. The assistant professorship of language arts at the College of Samoa was the most appealing. I accepted an 18-month contract, left California a few months later, and arrived in Samoa in January 1989.

Except for holiday travel, I had lived in California my entire life and knew little about Samoa. I read eagerly about Samoan history, geography, and culture, and talked with people who had lived in Samoa and taught at the college. Yet I arrived believing that my Samoan students would be motivated by the same values and would aspire to the same goals that I considered worthwhile. I was surprised to discover that my worldview was uniquely European American and my attitude ethnocentric. Samoa became the classroom and textbook that taught me about cultural relativity and intercultural communication. I discovered I had much to learn about Samoa and even more about myself.

Background

The U.S. and Samoan governments have been intertwined since the end of World War II, yet many Americans are unaware of the vast northern ocean area of Oceania. Samoa is one of many tiny islands that comprises a string of more than 2,100 islands and atolls lying in four major archipelagos: the Mariana, the Caroline, the Marshall, and the Kiribati islands. These islands are scattered across an area as large as the continental United States, yet they are so small that their combined land mass amounts to approximately 1,000 square miles, about the size of Rhode Island. The inhabited islands are home to more than 375,000 people, who make up five constitutional governments. While these political divisions also represent linguistic, ethnic, and cultural differences, the people native to the islands are all classified as Micronesians.

Despite 175 years of contact with foreigners, Samoans have maintained their traditional politics, languages, and family organizations. Changes, though, are inevitable. As a result, I found island life to be an amalgam of traditional and Western influences. Samoans wear Western-style clothing, drive imported cars, eat in Japanese restaurants, and socialize in American-style bars. Yet these same people are equally comfortable wearing traditional island lava lavas, reciting ancient folklore in native languages, and masterfully pounding sakau, the local kava drink.

Cultural Patterns

Although Samoans can move easily between ancient traditions and modern ideas, they have distinct value systems unlike those in the West. I found that it wasn’t always easy to consider-much less appreciate-our contrasting worldviews. And what huge differences in worldviews we had! The following list summarizes some of the significant differences in cultural assumptions that I encountered while living among Samoans:

Samoan

European American

Nature will provide for us in time.

We must change our world, control nature, and make it work for humankind.

What will be, will be. Human life is controlled by destiny.

We create our own future by what we do.

There’s no use rushing away from what I’m doing now. There’s always plenty of time.

I have to hurry and meet somebody now. See you later.

Worry about tomorrow when tomorrow comes.

Save for the future.

Work a little, rest a little. Whatever you do, try to keep other people happy.

If I work hard enough, someday I’ll make it to the top.

What I have is yours. What you have is mine

What’s mine belong to me.

The wise person is one who knows his place in the world, respects authority, and does what he is supposed to do.

Sensible people strike out on their own, learn to do things for themselves, and make their own decisions.

The feelings of others are more important than an honest answer.

Always tell the truth, no matter how much it hurts.

My life belongs to the family and God.

I am a god.

As you can tell from this list, the potential for intercultural misunderstandings is great. I found these cultural differences to be interesting, irritating, amusing, or stressful, depending on the situation.

As time passed, I moved through predictable and trying phases of adjustment and assimilation. The first few months I was euphoric just to be in Samoa, and everything seemed perfect and beautiful. I walked around with a big smile on my face and wrote letters to my family that recounted every blissful event. My euphoria plummeted the morning I discovered two flat tires on my Jeep. As a prank, the boys in the village had let the air out of the tires. I took it very personally and cried. A few days later, someone stole my sandals off the porch. I wasn’t sure what to expect next in my new surroundings. I coped with the uncertainty by writing letters to everyone I knew “back home,” socializing primarily with American and European expatriates and occasionally retreating to the solitude of my bungalow. Eventually I settled into a routine in which uncertainty became entertaining more than threatening. I reached out to people with varied cultural backgrounds and broadened my social circle.

I enjoyed new cultural experiences. I drank sakau and ate eel at feasts, visited with neighbors, hiked in the rainforest, learned to scuba dive, and enjoyed the challenge of teaching English to Samoan students. With each experience I gained valuable insights into the culture and into myself. As I learned about Samoan ways, I came to better understand my own cultural conditioning.

My American assumptions were often laughable in the Samoan context. I felt anxious about wasting time and reprimanded students who were late to class. I was impatient when meeting times were disregarded. I took pride in accomplishing a list of goals each day. Then one day a Samoan dean questioned why another American professor always walked so fast. “What’s his hurry all the time?” the dean wondered aloud. Knowing that I easily outpaced my American colleague, I realized the question was indirectly aimed at my own task-oriented style. I felt embarrassed about looking foolish to the dean, but it seemed right to use my time wisely.

My notions of being direct and straightforward also were challenged. One day my friend Maggie stood me up at the hospital. I had agreed to assist her by talking with a physician on her behalf. She had health problems that she didn’t fully understand and agreed to meet me at the hospital for an 11 A.M. appointment. I took a taxi and arrived at the hospital 10 minutes early. After reading a book for 20 minutes I roamed around the hospital, looking for Maggie. I was concerned and wondered if a problem was keeping her from being on time. After I’d been there 45 minutes, Maggie’s brother found me, staring toward the main door, and told me that Maggie was sorry but she couldn’t make it that day. I was disappointed and frustrated. Unlike the earlier interaction with the dean, the cultural implications were not obvious. Months later, after observing similar incidents between others, I realized that Maggie never intended to meet me that day. Apparently she felt that saying “no” would have insulted me.

Political Structure

Shortly after moving to Samoa, I discovered that an important key to understanding Samoan culture lies in the pervasive traditional political structure, which is a hierarchical social system with strongly embedded political and relational values and social norms. Even when Samoan communities are affected by the maneuvering of government politicians, the traditional system factors strongly into negotiations and outcomes of most political transactions. For example, the negotiations required for paving the road that encircled the city were lengthy and complicated. Government officials proposed a plan that had to be approved by each of the five districts’ leaders. The negotiations for land rights took months of meetings, discussions, gifts, and other traditional courtesies. Eventually, after each traditional chief felt satisfied that his community had been sufficiently compensated, the road construction began.

Typically, each district on an island operates within a status hierarchy: hereditary nobility, landed gentry, and commoners. Each island district is ruled by a nanmwarki, or “high chief.” Below the nanmwarki is a group of high-titled nobles. A second set of nobles is headed by the nahnken, or “talking chief.” Each male title has a female equivalent. The male leaders, however, are the decision makers and the most highly revered in traditional culture. They are bestowed with much respect; others must address them in a “high language,” which is an honorific language with special vocabulary reserved for nobility and authority.

Commoners and outsiders like me are expected to stand when talking to nobility, to respond to rather than initiate communication, and to cast our eyes downward to convey humility and respect. One evening I was introduced to a nahnken who had entered the restaurant where I was dining with a colleague. As the nahnken approached us, my friend quickly coached me: “Stand up, shake his hand, and cast your eyes down.” I reluctantly followed his direction, feeling very awkward. In that instance I was abiding by the local custom but violating behaviors that I considered to be courteous and comfortable. I prefer to use direct eye contact and a sincere smile and believe such gestures conveyed confidence, honesty, and mutual respect. At that moment, I struggled to avoid eye contact and felt resentment and tightness in my stomach as I tried to abide by social norms that collided with my own standards of equality and status. Gender Roles

Unlike in U.S. society, where equality is the desired value, the roles of men and women in traditional Samoan cultures are quite well defined. Many gender roles were apparent. In the morning, women hung their laundry, prepared meals, and swept their living areas. Men returned from early-morning fishing outings to repair homes or head for their jobs in town. During the day, men built houses, repaired canoes, sailed, fished, and gathered breadfruit and coconuts. Women prepared meals, cared for the children, cleaned, and tended the taro patches. In the early evenings, men met at the “men’s house” for socializing or all-male community decision-making. After their homemaking chores, women played cards or walked through the village, visiting with friends along the way.

In business and government centers on the more developed islands, many women have moved into the workplace, operating businesses or working in government offices. As women’s roles have changed, so have gender communication norms. Traditional hierarchies still dictate the intrinsic status of women, but the subtleties are not obvious to an outsider. I learned about social status by talking to Samoan men and women.

Traditionally, social expectations in Samoa dictate where and to whom women may speak, but norms have shifted as women have taken responsible positions in community affairs. In more traditional settings, however, predictable gender communication norms remain intact. Women, for instance, are not supposed to speak during village or community meetings. Above all, women should not challenge or confront men. As a European American woman, I found that notion foreign. I learned the hard way about hierarchical gender communication in Samoa.

My bungalow was situated between the only sakau bar and beer bar in the village. Over the winter holiday season, both bars had ongoing parties. Because sakau is a soporific, the more the patrons drank, the quieter they became. The beer had the opposite effect on the patrons in the second bar. As the evening progressed, people and music became louder, and the noise continued until dawn. After two sleepless nights, I approached the bar owner with a direct but courteous plea to end the party at a reasonable hour. He reluctantly agreed to turn the music off by 10 P.M. and close the bar at midnight. I felt relieved, but that evening the music continued past midnight. I walked over to the bar, asked to speak to the owner, and pleaded with him to turn off the music. I made, I thought, a reasonable and polite request, but the music continued into the early morning.

On my way to campus that morning I was confronted by the owner’s daughter, who accused me of casting shame on her father. Although the owner and I had had a private conversation, my directness was perceived as aggressive and disrespectful. I tried to explain my position to the daughter, but she wouldn’t listen. As an outsider and a woman, I had overstepped my boundaries and never had a chance of persuading the owner to comply with my request. Interestingly, my landlord, a well-respected businessman, eventually intervened. From that night on, the owner conformed to a 10 P.M. curfew, and I finally got some sleep.

Even in family settings, women must temper their comments. A Pohnpeian colleague once explained that if she was bitterly angry with her brother’s wife, she would not dare say anything to her brother about her feelings. To do so would be disrespectful to her brother and would cast shame on herself. She said she limits her conversations with her brother to “asking for his help or advice.”

I learned that women who initiate conversations with men are considered forward or flirtatious. The college maintenance man went out of his way to help me set up my office and bungalow. I thought he was very nice-until he made a pass at me. I was informed that my outgoing personality and friendly small talk had been interpreted as romantic interest. I thought it was silly, so I just ignored the misunderstanding. To avoid an unnecessary conflict, however, I was courteously warned by my Samoan friends about the man’s jealous Chuukese wife and told to avoid him.

A similar situation occurred after I stopped one day to look at a hotel construction site near the lagoon. One of the owners, who was married to the college secretary, was on the premises. I was pleased to meet him and chatted about his new hotel. A few days later, his wife told me that he thought I was flirting with him. Thankfully, she didn’t take him seriously. My Samoan friends trusted me and guided me when necessary to avoid misperceptions. I was grateful for the support as I maneuvered my way through a new culture.

I learned, for instance, that despite the cultural constraint of gender, Samoan women hold a position of power and community esteem in island life. When a dispute occurs, the first-born woman, who is the female head of her clan, is sent to settle the conflict and reconcile the two sides. Her judgments are almost always obeyed, because if they are not there is the risk that the conflict could reemerge to plague the community.

True to their collectivist nature, the Samoan people consider social harmony an important cultural value that is critical to community welfare. Women are called on to ensure that such harmony prevails. Harmony must prevail in this culture! Family and Children

Like most European Americans, I tend to belong to several unrelated groups. Samoans, however, belong to one relatively unchanging group: their family. Having grown up in a small family I found it intriguing that Samoan families include all relatives in their clan. The extended family is composed of generations of matrilineal relationships. Several members of the extended family commonly share a single household. The larger clan is composed of descendants of a common female ancestor. As a Westerner, I was confused by the matrilineal nature of Samoan families. Descendants always come through the woman and are considered members of the mother’s clan. Children refer to their mothers, aunts, grandmothers, and other significant women as “mom.” Their siblings and cousins are considered “brothers and sisters.” When the girl next door told me that she had 19 brothers and sisters, I laughed because I thought she was joking. When I asked Millie, the daughter of my friend Maggie, how many brothers and sisters she has, she began counting on her fingers but finally threw up her and hands and exclaimed, ” I don’t know a lot!”

Rank in the clan comes from birth order, not age. The children of the oldest daughter will have higher rank than the children of a younger daughter, regardless of their ages. For example, if the older daughter’s son is 25 years old, and the youngest daughter’s son is 35 years old, the older daughter’s son would have the higher rank. He would be regarded as a big brother by the older but lower-ranking man. Rank for females follows the same pattern. Grandparents, by virtue of their position in the family, are highly honored and treated with great respect, love, and care by their children and grandchildren.

Respect is the most important value to Samoans. It is expressed in the guiding rule to “be humble; don’t put yourself up.” This social rule, which extends to all relationships, discouraged our college freshmen from initiating conversation with sophomores. In some circumstances, though, such as in a classroom, students switched to an egalitarian style for practical reasons. But they did so with discomfort.

I asked my college students to explain status norms. One responded, “The rule about talking to higher-rank people is to be polite. We honor the higher title person.” Another said, “We use high language for leaders and important people like the elders. If you don’t use appropriate language you are considered impolite and disrespectful. Following the rules in our culture is very important, which is why I don’t like to communicate at feasts with traditional leaders.”

In general, only a few expectations constrain children’s behavior. Parents allow their children to do whatever they please as long as they display respect for others. One afternoon I sat visiting with my friend while her three young children played nearby. During our four-hour conversation, her children would stop to listen to us talk but did not once interrupt. Occasionally my friend or I would speak to her kids. They responded immediately to their mother but were more hesitant toward me.

Respect is the value embedded in the strict rules that prohibit children from initiating conversations with elders. An elder is loosely defined as anyone older than the child. When responding to an elder, children are expected to use “high language.” They use honorific language to answer their parents, grandparents, or older siblings, especially the first-born son. Samoan children will rarely vie for attention or interrupt adults. So, although children are included in all community events, they are typically “seen but not heard.”

If a child does something displeasing, the parent will usually attempt to modify the behavior by making the child feel ashamed. For instance, if a girl uses her mother’s money to buy something without permission, the parent may talk about the child within her hearing range to make the child feel ashamed for spending the family’s money. Disputes among family members are strongly discouraged. Children are taught this value at a very early age and are made to feel great shame if a dispute occurs. Courtesy, respect, and politeness are constant themes found in each household and in the community. Intentional rudeness or malevolent behaviors are looked down on. A person exhibiting such behaviors is considered amalgam tekia, a Chuukese phrase meaning “haughty.”

Samoan parents do not praise their children for good deeds. Children might hear indirectly from a third party how pleased their parents are with their behavior, but Samoans find it awkward to express and receive compliments directly. I would tell children how beautiful or talented they were and would be surprised to hear in reply “I’m not.” My Samoan friends were more likely to express their appreciation through caring, gifts, or favors. In fact, providing enough food is the primary way in which a parent shows affection for a child. Being hungry would imply to others that the child is not taken care of properly and is, therefore, unloved.

Family members who are hungry are expected to help themselves to food. But a hungry person may be too embarrassed to ask for food, for fear of implying that the family is neglectful. To avoid embarrassing family members, Samoan people assume that any person coming into the house, including a visitor, is hungry and is thus greeted with an offer of food. Family members generally serve themselves from the communal bowl. Eating together goes beyond the mere intake of food to satisfy hunger. The spirit of sharing is a way of showing oneness and, more significantly, mutual trust and love.

Displays of affection among family members, as practiced by many groups in the United States, do not exist in Samoan families. Children display affection for their parents through loyalty and by performing certain duties or responsibilities for the family, such as sweeping the floor without being asked. Although Samoans seldom hug or kiss children, a mother will lovingly nuzzle her child’s nose.

I attended a church wedding and was surprised that the Western tradition of the husband kissing the bride was eliminated from the ceremony. I was told later that public displays of affection are considered inappropriate. Holding hands with others outside the family circle is more common, especially among those of the same gender. The only time one is likely to observe hugging and kissing in a family is when an adult is playing with a baby. In fact, children are not allowed to observe kissing. Millie told me that it made her shake (nervous) when she saw Americans kissing, because it was bad. I had seen her cover her eyes during a kissing scene in a film. She told me that her mother said she should never see kissing. I heard stories of teenage girls being punished for inadvertently witnessing Westerners kissing at the airport. The taboo is apparently a strategy for discouraging promiscuity, although I am not sure how well it works. Language

Many language differences exist in Samoa, although each language derives from a common Malayo-Polynesian source. Several major tribal languages, with dialect variations, are spoken in Samoa. The islanders I encountered knew their native language and at least one other language. On the islands that were heavily influenced by Japan, inhabitants know some conversational Japanese. Because of the diversity of native languages, English has emerged as the lingua franca used in government, education, and other intercultural contexts. For most Samoans, English is a second language; for others, it is their fourth or fifth and, thus, the language with which they feel the least secure.

At the College of Samoa students appeared confident when switching between tribal languages but seemed reluctant when communicating in English to me. I spoke with students who had varying degrees of English proficiency. Some disclosed that they were afraid of appearing “stupid” to native English speakers.

I taught an evening class for two weeks before I realized that the majority of students didn’t understand me. They pretended to understand by simply nodding and smiling. When I spoke to them individually after class, I realized that in fact they understood very little English. Samoans who live and work in city centers and who have frequent contact with native English speakers are able to express themselves as clearly in English as they do in their native languages. When they speak fluent English, it is easy to forget that our cultural perceptions may actually block clear communication.

I sometimes wondered about the illusion of shared meaning that existed during my intercultural conversations. There were times I’d expect a particular outcome but it wouldn’t occur. I learned, over time, not to take the language for granted. I tried to be empathetic toward students who spoke in a foreign language, especially when I heard them struggling to express themselves clearly. Actually, I admired their ability to speak multiple languages.

Communication Norms

Samoans seem to be simultaneously extroverted and introverted. As a group Samoans find it easy to talk with others, and they perceive themselves to be friendly, dramatic, and animated. They also appear interested in others, demonstrating goodwill when they communicate.

Because it is difficult to accept compliments, Samoans generally do not openly give compliments. They admire people silently or indirectly. Generally, if a person wants to compliment another, he or she will pass the compliment through a relative rather than acknowledge the person directly.

When I praised our student clerk for a job well done she giggled, blushed, and turned away from me. I observed the same reaction when I openly praised students for well-written essays or other course work. One day in front of my office, I encouraged a young man to present his exceptionally good speech at our upcoming speech festival. He turned his body away from me as he flipped his hand chest-high in a gesture that meant to communicate “stop” or “go away,” because it was difficult for him to accept the compliment. Each time I encountered these common nonverbal responses, they were coupled with self-effacing statements that were said with a smile, but it was quite clear that the student was extremely uncomfortable. One student explained: “People are uncomfortable with praise because they do not want to be perceived as thinking they are `big’ or better than anybody else.” Modesty is an important characteristic of the Samoan personality. Samoans believe that it is generally virtuous to be quiet. Even in childbirth, a woman is expected to keep silent and show as little pain as possible.

Samoans find very few situations in which they can show pride in their accomplishments or possessions without fear of criticism. This attitude was evident at the conclusion of our college speech festival, when all the student speakers disappeared immediately after the awards ceremony. The young man who won first place for his persuasive speech left to avoid criticism for pretentiousness or “acting big.” Runners-up left because they felt ashamed. In a collectivist community where such public competition is rare, the fear of ridicule or gossip seems sufficiently strong to enforce an apparent pattern of exaggerated modesty, humility, and shame.

Samoan communication style uses less verbal exchange and looks for implicit meaning in the situation. In contrast, my European American communication style is one in which talkativeness is valued and the message is conveyed explicitly. In everyday encounters I commonly misinterpreted silence as introversion, shyness, or disinterest. Over time, I better understood notions of context as I heard conversations similar to one between our department secretary and a European American professor. As the professor walked away from the exchange, the secretary grimaced. When I asked, “What’s wrong?” she answered, “He talks too much.” She explained that talkative people are less respected in society. People who are reserved or quiet are admired. This greatly influences the way in which Samoans conduct themselves in public. “Generally,” she explained, “people rarely initiate conversations, particularly if they are meeting someone new. During childhood we are told not to speak to adults, and if we did speak we were to be careful of the language to be used.” Talkativeness casts shame on oneself and one’s family. Such perceived threats contribute greatly to Samoans’ willingness to communicate with others.

Nonverbal Communication

Differences in nonverbal communication, or body language, are often subtle and can be the source of intercultural misunderstanding. During my first few days at the College of Samoa, the division secretary was on sick leave. When she returned I introduced myself and asked, “Are you feeling better?”

She answered “Yes” nonverbally by raising and lowering her eyebrows. I interpreted her response to mean “What did you say?” So I repeated the question a little more slowly, and again she raised her brows. I asked the question a third time, receiving the same nonverbal response. Out of frustration, I finally said, “I hope you are feeling better soon.” About a week later, when I learned that raised eyebrows mean “yes,” I realized that the secretary must have thought me dense for repeatedly asking the same question.

Samoans use the same shake of the head as Americans as a way to say “no.” A frown accompanied by a wave of the hand at chest level is an emphatic “no!” or “stop it!” Samoans throw their heads slightly back and to the side to indicate “over there.” Depending on the context of the question, the response could mean a few blocks away or the next island over. The apparent ambiguity of that particular response was sometimes confusing. Similarly, if I, as an outsider, were to summon a Samoan by repeatedly curling my index finger upward, the gesture would imply that the receiver had the status of an animal. More than a few times, I had to control my impulse to use that common American gesture.

Much more difficult was remembering that the proper nonverbal gesture for summoning someone in Samoa is to make a downward movement of the hand from the level of the head to the shoulder. The first time a Samoan beckoned me in this manner, I thought he was telling me to “go away.” I stood in utter confusion until he finally asked me to “come here.” The verbal message was need. Height

I often learned through my mistakes. I once reached out to ruffle a little boy’s hair only to have my hand quickly pulled away by a colleague who saved me from cultural transgression. From my American perspective, I was expressing affection toward the child. I was surprised to learn that I was conveying the exact opposite meaning by violating a Samoan perception of height, an important concept in Samoan cultures. Generally speaking, the higher something or someone is, the more sacred it is. The head is the highest part of the human body; to touch another person’s head is considered disrespectful, and such behavior is strictly prohibited.

Height also acts as a type of checks-and-balances system. When passing others who are sitting, Chuukese people say “Tirow” (excuse me) or “Tirow wom” (high language used to excuse oneself) to elders and others higher in rank. “Tirow wom” is usually accompanied by a bow from the waist, which demonstrates respect by lowering one’s height in relation to the people who are sitting.

In the Chuukese culture, a woman is forbidden to be physically higher than a man at any time. I heard Westerners mistakenly categorize this behavior as sexist. From the Chuukese perspective, however, the behavior is practical: A woman should never stand when a man is sitting because she runs the risk of drawing attention to her thighs. A woman’s thighs are considered sexually stimulating by Samoan men. Therefore, her behavior would appear sexually suggestive.

If a woman’s brother is sitting, she would either walk past him at a distance while bowing at the waist, walk past him on her knees, crawl, or simply sit down and wait for him to stand up. She would not, under any circumstances, directly ask him to stand up, because that would imply that he didn’t respect her. She could, however, ask another person to point out her presence to him or wait until he noticed her. As an outsider, I was generally exempt from these strict cultural rules and was excused when I inadvertently violated social expectations. Still, I tried my best to be sensitive to cultural norms.

Before I left California, I read about the Samoan perception of female thighs. I was prepared to teach while wearing long skirts and to play while wearing modest, knee length walking shorts. I found most outsiders to be equally sensitive toward this cultural norm. Peace Corps volunteers and other expatriate women adopted the Samoan style of swimming in skirts. It was easier to swim or dive out on the reef, away from the island, because we could swim in bathing suits and cover up with lava-lauas (wrapped skirts) as soon as we got within sight of the island. One afternoon, while returning to the lagoon in our boat, some friends and I were engrossed in conversation and didn’t remember to cover our legs. We snapped back to reality as we passed the docks and were jeered with whistles and wolf-calls. Interestingly, my friends and I felt very exposed and embarrassed and quickly learned to abide by cultural tradition.

Time

As members of a “doing” culture, European Americans are very concerned with time, compartmentalizing it carefully to avoid wasting it. Samoa is a “being” culture. Samoans are more likely to listen to their natural impulses-to eat when they are hungry and sleep when they are tired-than to the hands of a clock. Cooking, fishing, and other tasks are determined by mood, weather, or ocean tides. In the remote villages and outer islands, much time is spent relaxing and socializing. The men meet to discuss community affairs or play games. The women weave or socialize over a card game. I had difficulty relating to people in the village who appeared to spend a great part of the day just sitting around doing nothing. I would have been bored but, interestingly, the word “bored” does not exist in Samoan tribal languages.

In city centers, where people are expected to abide by work hours and class times, Samoans find the transition to schedules unnatural and confining. It is not considered unusual or rude for Samoans to come later than their appointed time. It would, however, be unusual to meet a Samoan who was in a hurry or anxious over a deadline. Because European Americans typically view time as a commodity, the time issue causes many misunderstandings. It took most of the first semester for me to understand that student tardiness was not a sign of disrespect or apathy.

During the fall semester I was asked to present a communication workshop to local radio announcers. I had very little time to design the workshop, so I gave the support staff the course materials to duplicate and assemble. Two days before the workshop was scheduled I discovered the duplicating hadn’t been completed. I expressed my concern about having the materials on time but was assured that they would be ready. I heard indirectly that if I was in such a great hurry I should do the job myself. Surprisingly, the materials were delivered one hour before I left for the radio station.

I arrived at the station ten minutes early and found only one person there. The general manager and three announcers trickled in over the next 20 minutes. As I was about to begin, the electricity shut down, leaving us without air conditioning or lights. The general manager suggested we move the workshop to the college campus. By the time we drove to the campus and settled into a classroom, 15 minutes were left of the scheduled time. I had time only for a brief introduction and an ice-breaker activity. I was disappointed that we lost virtually an entire session and that my preparation had been in vain, yet none of the participants seemed inconvenienced.

Space/Privacy The Samoan lifestyle is communal. Traditionally, many Samoans live in shared areas where everything is used collectively. This idea is emphasized in the Chuukese proverb: “Meta aai epwe oomw, mea oomw epwe aai,” or “What is mine is yours, and what is yours is mine.” This notion remains an ideal cultural value but is mostly theoretical. In reality, Samoans have personal property and regard it as such. Personal property may be loaned to others, but it is considered proper to ask the rightful owner for permission. Most of the time the owner will grant permission. In fact, about the only time the owner would withhold permission is when he or somebody else was using the object in question.

While the concept of private property does exist, Samoans tend to be less attached to their belongings than are European Americans. Acquaintances who were Peace Corps volunteers said this was a frustrating cultural difference that they found difficult to accept. They explained that if they wanted to keep personal possessions such as hair clips, books, or cassette players for themselves, they would have to put them away in a private place. Their Samoan family’s attitude toward such items was one of detachment, which is generally true for most Samoans. For instance, if something is borrowed and subsequently lost or damaged, the owner will not express anger, because people are much more important than possessions. In contrast, European Americans tend to react to losing a possession with varying degrees of anger and, depending on the object, may perceive a loss almost as a loss of part of oneself. In the collectivist Samoan societies, in contrast, the personality of each person is well known, but people express their individuality by their behaviors rather than their possessions.

The issue of privacy was a challenge for me in Samoa. As a typical European American, I highly value my privacy, but the concept of privacy is strange in Samoan cultures because togetherness is the norm. Although most Samoans have been exposed to American cultural patterns and accept them, they still do not fully comprehend the need for “quiet time” or privacy. Being alone is generally associated with strong emotions-for instance, avoiding an individual or group to keep from expressing strong anger toward others or hiding because of feelings of sadness or great shame. Samoans may also think that someone desiring solitude is mas or “physically sick and wants to be alone.”

The day I moved into my two-bedroom bungalow, the landlord sent his son over to make some repairs on the house. His three sisters followed him over, walked into my living room, tied up the curtains to let the breeze in, and sat down for a chat among themselves. They were as relaxed and natural as if they were in their own home. I, on the other hand, didn’t quite know what to do. Should I offer them something to drink? Make small talk? Try to entertain them in some way? The young women were fully engaged in their conversation in tribal dialect, so I retreated uncomfortably to my back room to work until everyone was ready to leave. On other occasions, the children in the neighborhood would pile onto my back porch to watch the video playing on my TV. They seemed as interested in what I was doing as in the plot of the film. After some time, I noticed my boundaries relaxing, but I was never fully comfortable with the territorial differences. The most disturbing violations of my privacy were when the young men in the neighborhood looked into my windows at night. The nocturnal habits of a single menwai (outsider) woman were apparently entertaining. Night-Crawling

The Chuukese term for night-crawling is teefan. This is the behavior in which a young man sneaks to a young woman’s house at night to meet her. Strictly speaking, the man could go night-crawling only when the couple had made an arrangement. It is expected that the woman will help the man in their attempts to get together. In days gone by, the process was much easier. Houses were thatched, and all the man had to do was poke his carved wooden “love stick” through the thatched wall and await an answer. The woman could either invite him in or ask him to wait outside by a simple push or pull of the stick. It was obviously necessary that the woman know the love-stick design of her intended lover.

Today the ritual is complicated by cinder-block or wooden walls that make the love-stick ineffective. Night-crawling continues but with an arrangement made between the lovers. Frequently I discovered evidence of such trysts near my bungalow. Large banana leaves had been used to pad the ground where young couples met. Crawling around without such prearrangement constitutes inkikich or peeping. The boys in my village occasionally whistled into my windows and on one occasion actually invited my visiting mother to join them in the night air. She just laughed. But night-crawling can be risky, and a man who night-crawls should expect to meet challenges. It is perfectly acceptable for the man to be beaten up by the woman’s relatives if he is caught.

Conclusion I moved back to California in 1990, when I accepted a teaching position at San Joaquin Delta College in Stockton. The first day on campus I met a visiting professor that had been a Peace Corps volunteer in Samoa. He encouraged me to teach intercultural communication because, he said, “It’s an important course, great fun, and a forum for Samoan tales.”

I am glad I took his advice; because each time I share a story with students I am transported to Samoa. I remember the riches I gained by living among Samoans: I was able to move beyond my ethnocentrism and better understand and value variations of human behavior. I became aware of the culturally programmed beliefs, values, and norms that determine my behaviors. Most importantly, I developed lasting intercultural relationships.

Recently, my husband and I invited Millie, now eleven years old, to live with us. She arrived from Samoa eighteen months ago and is attending the elementary school near our home. These months together have been joyous for us all but particularly meaningful to me. Millie is Maggie’s daughter Maggie, my dear friend and former student in Samoa. I consider Samoa my second home and Maggie and her children my Samoan family.

Now that Millie is with us, I have a renewed sense of connection with my Samoan home and family. Each day with her brings discoveries about our life experiences and cultural assumptions. As I help her learn about American culture, I develop a deeper dimension of love for Samoa and a greater appreciation for cultural diversity and relativity.

The post Living in Paradise: An Inside Look at the Samoan Culture Vicki Marie appeared first on graduatepaperhelp.

Paper 3-Article writing homework task

Paper 3-Article writing homework task

1) Interesting Fact & Idea

A White House report on Culture and Diplomacy states: “There is a deep need to educate Americans on the importance of understanding other cultures and of the important role culture plays on the national agenda& (In the words of) Cellist Yo-Yo Ma, “A Senegalese poet said, “In the end we will conserve only what we love. We love only what we understand. And we will understand only what we are taught.’ We must learn about other cultures in order to understand, in order to love and in order to conserve our common world heritage.

” Would you agree or disagree with this and why? Relate this to what the text says about The Peace Imperative for Intercultural Competence.

2) Samoa Essay

” Competent communicators are said to possess Perception Effectiveness, and Appropriateness. Pick ONE of these three concepts and relate it to the essay. Give an example from the essay that is representative of the component you selected.

3) The Globe

Please check to see if the Image(s) you are being asked to review has a title. If there is a title, then I expect you to click on the title and read the corresponding document about the image and phrase your answer in a way that demonstrates your comprehension of this document as it relates to the theory in the text.

Go to The Globe. Locate the countries of China (in Asia), Pakistan (in Asia), Iran (in Asia), and Saudi Arabia (in Asia). Take a look at the photographs; specifically…

27 from China

19 from Pakistan

11 from Iran

12 from Saudi Arabia.

Use the interaction tool Description, Interpretation and Evaluation to compare and/or contrast the different norms in these pictures to your own.

http://elearn.fiu.edu/e-dev/WorldExplorer/index.html

use the link for question number 3, Samoa essay for question number 2 and the screenshot picture for question number 1

The post Paper 3-Article writing homework task appeared first on best homeworkhelp.

Paper 3-Article writing homework task

Paper 3-Article writing homework task

1) Interesting Fact & Idea

A White House report on Culture and Diplomacy states: “There is a deep need to educate Americans on the importance of understanding other cultures and of the important role culture plays on the national agenda& (In the words of) Cellist Yo-Yo Ma, “A Senegalese poet said, “In the end we will conserve only what we love. We love only what we understand. And we will understand only what we are taught.’ We must learn about other cultures in order to understand, in order to love and in order to conserve our common world heritage.

” Would you agree or disagree with this and why? Relate this to what the text says about The Peace Imperative for Intercultural Competence.

2) Samoa Essay

” Competent communicators are said to possess Perception Effectiveness, and Appropriateness. Pick ONE of these three concepts and relate it to the essay. Give an example from the essay that is representative of the component you selected.

3) The Globe

Please check to see if the Image(s) you are being asked to review has a title. If there is a title, then I expect you to click on the title and read the corresponding document about the image and phrase your answer in a way that demonstrates your comprehension of this document as it relates to the theory in the text.

Go to The Globe. Locate the countries of China (in Asia), Pakistan (in Asia), Iran (in Asia), and Saudi Arabia (in Asia). Take a look at the photographs; specifically…

27 from China

19 from Pakistan

11 from Iran

12 from Saudi Arabia.

Use the interaction tool Description, Interpretation and Evaluation to compare and/or contrast the different norms in these pictures to your own.

http://elearn.fiu.edu/e-dev/WorldExplorer/index.html

use the link for question number 3, Samoa essay for question number 2 and the screenshot picture for question number 1

The post Paper 3-Article writing homework task appeared first on graduatepaperhelp.

Campaigning for East Lansing Michigan with only 12,000 budget for the marketing agency.

Campaigning for East Lansing Michigan with only 12,000 budget for the marketing agency.

Sample Outline of a Plansbook

The following is a typical outline for a plansbook*. Although you are welcome to vary from this outline, do so carefully because the approach presented here covers all the necessary issues in a relatively logical order. Any variation from this should be done with concern for maintaining a logical presentation and thorough coverage of the issues. The italicized notes are not part of the outline, but are provided as advice to consider when composing that section of the plansbook. IF YOU AREN’T SURE ABOUT SOMETHING, ASK QUESTIONS!!! 1. Executive Summary

  • Keep it short. This should be a very brief (normally 1-page, single-spaced) summary of all major recommendations in your plan.
  • Avoid fluff. Make this informative, telling the client all the main recommendations in a very brief space, such as what message you’ll convey, what objectives you’ve set, what reach and frequency goals, etc.
  • I suggest you use either subheadings or bold-faced keywords to enhance readability.
  1. Situation Analysis – Write well. This should read like a story, not a list of bullet points or an outline. Make it reader-friendly. Use

transitions between sections and subsections, proof it for typos, and avoid pretentious language. – Number every page, even the creative executions, so the reader (including me) can refer you to specific items. – Make it convincing. Cite your sources (e.g., Richards 1990) so the reader knows you’re not inventing facts. I

recommend you use APA Citation Style. Don’t shoot from the hip. And don’t make sweeping generalizations that aren’t supported by fact. Let me repeat: cite your sources!

  • Be tactful. If a fact doesn’t reflect well on the client, don’t ignore it but present it so that it’s not unnecessarily critical. And be sure to point out the strengths, as well as the weaknesses. At the same time, avoid false praise of the client, because that will diminish your credibility.
  • Be logical. Present material in a logical order. – Don’t assume. You don’t know who will read this, so write it assuming the reader knows nothing about the assignment,

the product, or the campaign. – Don’t guess. Don’t say, for example, the consumer is doing something because of X if you don’t know that for a fact.

What you can do is say that it’s POSSIBLE the consumer is doing it because of X. That way you’re letting the client know that you’re not certain.

  • This is analysis only. Any mention of what you recommend should not appear until a later chapter. – Do plenty of research. Then do more. – Don’t be superficial. Look deeper at each issue than other agencies will. That is what will make you the best. One of

the most common mistakes students make is to mention a handful of facts per section, drawing one or two conclusions, and assuming that’s enough. You can’t truly evaluate a Product or a Consumer, etc., in a paragraph or two. If you don’t tell the client something new, that they hadn’t considered, you haven’t gone deep enough.

  • Avoid repetition. If you find you’re repeating yourself, that often is an indicator that you’ve organized the material poorly. Repetition is annoying and it hinders readability by making the document just that much longer than necessary.
  • Client focus. Remember it’s the client and the client’s product that is the theme of this book, it’s not an exercise in self- aggrandizement. Don’t try to impress the client with what you thought and what you did and what you will do, keep the attention on the client and the benefits to be realized by the client.
  • Cite your sources! Don’t state a fact without citing the source. This makes it clear you’re not guessing, and it also makes your conclusions more convincing.

a. Intro paragraph – Frame the scope of your analysis. This is just a recap of the client’s basic request, to help limit the scope of your

analysis. It helps to frame the discussion that follows. Did the client ask you to prepare a one year campaign, a one month campaign, for one product or a whole line of products, to sell a product or to repair a reputation? This sets the scope of your Situation Analysis, so that you don’t need to cover material issues that aren’t relevant to the current needs.

b. Company or Brand History & Evaluation – Keep it relevant. Keep it very brief, unless you’re certain it’s important to your analysis. Don’t waste a busy client’s

time by making him/her read lots of facts he/she already knows. In most cases a paragraph or two may be enough. – Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities

are there? c. Product Evaluation

  • Know the product inside and out. Describe and analyze the product features, benefits, costs, etc. What are its strengths and weaknesses?
  • Keep it relevant. Don’t include features, etc., that you don’t really find useful in your analysis. Keep focused on those that are relevant to the evaluation.
  • Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities are there?

d. Consumer Evaluation – Know the consumer inside and out. Who uses the product? Who doesn’t use it? Why do they use it (or not)? Where

is it used? Where is it purchased? When it is used? Analyze all of this information, looking for problems and opportunities. Be certain to look not only at current users, but also prospective/potential users.

  • Be sure to consider not just those the client thinks are consumers, but also those who aren’t current consumers. Why aren’t they?
  • Keep it relevant. Don’t just list facts to impress the client with your research, provide information you found relevant to your analysis, your understanding of the consumer.
  • Don’t forget the difference between buyers and users.
  • Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities are there?

e. Competitive Evaluation – Know the competitors inside and out. Who is the competition? How do you know? What are their relative strengths

and weaknesses? What have they done that has been successful or unsuccessful? – Go beyond the obvious. Is there any indirect competition? – Keep it relevant. You could talk forever about competitors, but much of what you find will have no impact on your

client’s current situation, so don’t waste the reader’s time on irrelevant material. – Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities

are there? f. Marketing Environment Evaluation

  • Are there market trends you should consider? Will the economy have any impact? Are there laws that restrict your campaign or have an effect on product sales?
  • Draw conclusions. What did you conclude? What problems do you see? What untapped or unexhausted opportunities are there?

g. Problems & Opportunities – This is just a summary of all the problems and opportunities that you found in your analysis, your conclusions. – There should be nothing new here, just a list of those problems & opportunities your analysis already identified.

  1. Marketing Recommendations – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation.

Generally, a rationale should convince the reader (1) that you can achieve this goal, and (2) that it is the best choice of all the goals you might have selected.

  • Ask yourself what recommendations you intend to make that will apply to all marketing efforts or all promotions, such as Brand Image. If it applies that broadly, it probably belongs here instead of in a later chapter.
  • Branding issues normally need to be addressed at this level, since they apply to all aspects of the marketing effort. a. Objectives
  • These are objectives not just for Marketing Communications, but for the entire Marketing Plan. – Every objective must be measurable. Objectives are only measurable if they are specific. Vague promises “to

increase,” for instance, aren’t enough unless you say how much something will increase and you have a way to actually measure the success or failure of that benchmark. They must be S.M.A.R.T.: Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time limited.

  • If you haven’t spelled this out earlier in the book (e.g., in the intro to the Situation Analysis) you MUST incorporate the time-period of the campaign into your goals, effectively setting a deadline by which your objectives will be achieved.
  • There are 3 categories of objective: Target Market, Intended Effects, and Measurement. 1) Target Market
  • This is your FIRST objective! It should always be the first objective. – The largest group of purchasers is not necessarily the best choice. – A target is a group at which you aim your campaign, and one that it is possible to hit within the scope of your

campaign. If the group is too big, you can’t possibly hit everyone in it. Remember: if you aim at everyone, you’ll hit no one.

  • A Target Market must be precise, so when we try to measure effects we’ll know who to survey or otherwise test. If I can’t tell whether a person is or is not in your Target, there’s no way I can measure your effects.
  • Remember, every recommendation must have a rationale. 2) Other Goals (intended effects)
  • Anything along the Lavidge & Steiner (L&S) model, from awareness to purchase. Usually, the most important goal is the bottom line: sales. Other steps along the L&S chain are necessarily included if you set a sales goal, but you may want to state a specific goal concerning one of those steps if it is especially important to your client’s desires.
  • Note, this is awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, etc., of the product or brand. 3) Measurement
  • Provide a very brief summary of how you’ll measure your objectives, then direct the reader back to your Evaluation chapter.

b. Strategy – Objectives are what you hope to achieve, and strategy is how you hope to achieve those objectives. – In this section you cover the Strategy of how you plan to achieve your Objectives with ALL of your marketing tools, not

just advertising & PR. This is where you describe any plan you have that will affect every later section in the book. For example, this is a good place to describe your plan for the brand image, since every form of marketing communication you cover later must convey the same image. But anything you put here SHOULD apply to all later chapters, and not be something narrow.

  • The whole purpose here, for the plansbook, is to show the big picture and where marketing communication (Promotion) fits within that picture.

1) Product – Do you recommend any changes? Do you need to change the package to incorporate a message? What role will the

product play in achieving the marketing goals? For example, do you plan to recommend a promotion that will require the product be produced in a new color, such as offering graduating college students the chance to buy your car in their school colors.

2) Price – Do you recommend any changes? Does the price fit the Brand Image you’re trying to establish or reinforce? What role

will price play in achieving the marketing goals? Are you going to promote special group packages that require the company to create a special pricing package?

3) Distribution – Do you recommend any changes? What role will distribution play in achieving the marketing goals? Don’t use the term

“Place” as a heading, please. – Is there a geographic region that is being overlooked, or one that is a waste of resources? Should the product be sold at

a different type of store, or a specific variety of store? If the product is a website, should the content also be distributed

in print? If it’s a sporting event, should another sports venue be used or another market be considered, or even a different distribution chain for the tickets be added? Even issues such as the amount of shelf space used for the product (e.g., shelving allowances) can be addressed here.

4) Promotion – This does not refer to Sales Promotion, but to all your promotional efforts, including advertising. This is only an

overview of what your promotional mix will be like, explaining where the greatest emphasis will be. – What promotional tools will be used in this campaign, and is one more important? For example, if PR is going to be

the main focus, with advertising merely used as support for the PR campaign, this is the place to explain that. – Anything broad, that affects all forms of promotion, might belong here. – Again, don’t forget that every recommendation must have a rationale.

  1. Advertising Recommendations (I’m separating advertising and PR here, simply because of a few little differences) – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – Though not outlined here, it doesn’t hurt to begin the chapter with an intro paragraph, telling the reader what this

chapter is about. a. Objectives

  • Every objective must be measurable. – There are 4 categories of objective: Target Audience, Message, Intended Effects, and Measurement.

1) Target Audience – This is your FIRST objective in this chapter! – This is an objective, so treat it like one. Make it stand out, so the client can quickly find it. – This is either the same target as the one in the previous chapter, or it is a subset of that target. – If it is the same as above, just summarize it and direct the reader to the page where you provide the full description and

rationale. – Just like the Target Market, a Target Audience must be described with precision. It must be absolutely specific and

measurable, so we know whether a person is or is not in the Target. – Don’t describe the lifestyle of the consumer here, except to the extent that it is measurable or serves as rationale.

2) Message – What is the 1 thing (or 2 or 3 things) you want to get across to the target? Keep it simple and straightforward. Don’t

try to stylize it, that’s the creatives’ job. Don’t try to include too much, or nothing will be communicated … K.I.S.S. – Avoid unnecessary wordiness. E.g., don’t start by saying “The message to be directed to the target is ….” That’s not

your message! Your message is “Product X is the biggest on the market,” or some such thing. 3) Intended Effects

  • Awareness, knowledge and liking of the ad (or the message). No other goals are legitimate communication goals, because you can’t be certain that they were caused by your ad. Awareness, knowledge or liking of the product, however, is a marketing objective and not an advertising objective.
  • Remember, they must be measurable! 4) Measurement
  • How will you measure to see if you met your goals? Basically, this discussion belongs in your evaluation chapter, so put a heading here, with a brief description, and direct the reader back to the page where you provide more detail.

b. Creative Strategy – First comes objectives, now comes strategy! – This is the Creative Brief, so none of this needs to be measurable. It’s a contract with the creatives, telling them what is

expected. 1) Target Audience

  • This should be exactly the same as in the Ad Objectives, above. Again, you can summarize it and cite back to the complete description.

2) Key Benefit and Support – The Key Benefit should reflect the Message you listed above. It is the benefit you are promising to consumers. The

Support is sometimes called “permission to believe.” It is a list of reasons you can give the consumer to believe he/she will receive the promised benefit.

3) Objectives – This should reflect the Intended Effects listed above, but not stated in measurable terms.

4) Tone & Manner – Tone is “happy” or “serious” or “funny.” Manner refers to the “requisites,” such as the need to make the ad black &

white, to fit previous campaigns, or the need to include a certain theme song used by the brand in the past. c. Executions

  • First comes objectives, then comes strategy, now comes tactics. – Provide a brief explanation of each, so the reader will understand what you are trying to accomplish. Describe how it

fits the strategy. – Your executions can be either thumbnail or finished, depending upon your strategic approach to the client.

  1. Public Relations & Other Marketing Communications (Sales Promotion, Direct Marketing, etc.) – Each campaign is different, with different problems, so the tools you select will vary. However, today traditional

advertising often takes a back seat to other Marcomm methods, so some of these may actually deserve more space in your plan than the advertising.

  • Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – Though not outlined here, it doesn’t hurt to begin the chapter with an intro paragraph, telling the reader what this

chapter is about. a. Objectives

  • Note that this follows in the same order with the same basic issues as the Advertising Recommendations. – Every objective must be measurable. – Just like with Advertising, there are 4 categories of objective: Target Audience, Message, Intended Effects, and

Measurement.

1) Target – This is your FIRST objective in this chapter! – Newspapers are NOT your target. Newspaper editors probably aren’t, either. Those are strategies, not targets. The

target is who you want to read the newspaper articles. – If it’s a different target than in a previous section, provide a rationale. If it’s the same, refer the reader back to where

you provided the rationale. Remember that it MUST be either the same as the target market in the Marketing chapter, or some sub-category of that target market.

2) Message – Yes, even a t-shirt give-away or event has a message. Why are you doing it? What are you trying to communicate to

the target? If you can’t come up with a message to write here, perhaps you should reconsider using that promotional technique.

3) Intended Effects – Again, they must be measurable.

4) Measurement – How will you measure to see if you met your goals? Basically, this discussion belongs in your evaluation chapter, so

put a heading here, with a brief description, and direct the reader back to the page where you provide more detail. b. Strategy

1) A complete description of what you will do. – If you intend to sponsor a contest, explain the rules, who will conduct it, where it will be conducted, how much it will

cost, etc. The same holds true with a press release, coupons, promotional product give-aways, premiums, etc. – Don’t skimp on detail. Overkill is better than under-preparation. Being thorough can be the key to impressing the

client, and failure to be thorough can be decidedly unimpressive, especially when your lack of research leads to you overlooking some important issue. The biggest weakness I find in plans is a lack of depth and detail.

  • Here you also can include the sorts of things you provided in the Media section, earlier, such as a flowchart to show the timing of events, etc.
  • Tell the reader the cost of each item as you present it. c. Executions, if any
  • If you have anything that requires an execution (e.g., a t-shirt design, a point-of-purchase display, a press release, etc.) you stand a much better chance of impressing the client if you include it here. This shows you have thought your idea all the way through.
  1. Media Recommendations – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – Though not outlined here, it doesn’t hurt to begin the chapter with an intro paragraph, telling the reader what this

chapter is about. – The previous chapters were about message creation, this chapter is about message delivery. – The trend in recent years has been toward integrated marketing communications, which includes integrated media. So

you should include not just traditional advertising in this section, but also PR and direct marketing and promotional products, etc. Everything should be reflected here.

a. Media Vision – This is not an industry-wide practice, but it’s a good idea. Do it. The Vision is the broad perspective of what you want

to achieve, what components are needed, and what sets this plan apart from others. b. Key Media Problem

  • Optional. Only state a key problem if there really is one. Avoid bullshit like “To most efficiently reach the target with a limited budget.” That is a given, true for every media plan ever done in history. A Key Problem is one that is unique to your campaign. IF THERE IS NOTHING UNIQUE, drop this section from your chapter.

c. Target Audience – This should be the same as the Advertising Recommendations, so just briefly state the target and refer the reader back

to the rationale you’ve already provided. You only state the target here so the reader isn’t forced to search for it, to figure out who you’re trying to reach.

  • This is always your first objective. d. Other Objectives
  • Every objective must be measurable. – Provide a Rationale for every objective.

1) Reach – DO NOT categorize these objectives by medium. You don’t have a separate Reach for print and one for TV, for

example, print and TV are simply means by which you’ll achieve your overall Reach. 2) Frequency

  • Like Reach, DO NOT categorize these objectives by medium. 3) Timing/Continuity 4) Others (e.g., geographic, creative, etc.)
  • Go back and review the media plan you did in your Media Planning Class. e. Strategy

1) Media Selections – Why are you using television? Does your target watch TV? Convince me you are making the best choice. Show me

evidence that your target uses your chosen media. Statistics are a good idea. You’re also welcome to talk about how each will contribute to your other objectives (e.g., Reach & Frequency).

2) Vehicle Selections – I suggest you discuss media first, and only after you finish that discussion begin talking about specific vehicles. – Why are you using this particular vehicle?

3) Schedule – Include dates, number of insertions, rating points, costs, etc.

4) Flowchart – This is a nice way for the client to quickly and easily see an overview of your media plan. If you make one that is too

simple, however, it will be uninformative.

  1. Evaluation – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. – You need to provide a fairly complete explanation of how you will measure all of your goals. If you use a survey, who

will conduct it? Who will be surveyed? How will they be sampled? Exactly when will it be administered? What kinds of questions will be asked? Who will administer it? How much will it cost? You don’t need to design the questionnaire (though that’s alright, and it can impress the client), but you do need to provide enough information that this chapter could be handed to the research company and they’d have a pretty good idea what you want them to do. DO NOT just tell me you’re going to hire an outside company to conduct the research, and that they’ll design the studies. I want YOU to design the studies, and show me you’ve thought about precisely how you’ll measure every objective. You’re the experts, so act the part.

  • Don’t just tell me you’re hiring a subcontractor to do this. You can do that, but you still must tell me how each of these goals will be measured.
  • Media goals are normally pre-measured, in the sense that you select a vehicle by its reach & frequency, so you don’t need to discuss measurement of media goals here unless you’re doing something that requires post-publication evaluation.
  • The most common deficiency in these chapters is lack of detail. Be thorough. a. Marketing Goals
  • I recommend you begin each section by re-stating the objectives, so the client knows what you’re measuring and isn’t forced to search through the book to figure it out.

b. Advertising Goals – Again, begin by re-stating the goals you’ll measure.

c. Sales Promotion, etc., Goals – Again, begin by re-stating the goals you’ll measure.

  1. Budget – When students create a plan, this generally is one of the most ignored aspects of their plan, but to clients this can and

often is the most important aspect. It should not be taken for granted. – Every recommendation should be accompanied by a rationale, explaining the thinking behind that recommendation. If

you’ve already provide that rationale earlier, just cite the page where the reader can find it. a. General Ledger

  • List all of your debits and credits. Provide enough detail. Don’t just group “Media” as one expense, break it down to show how much you are spending on each medium (but not each vehicle).
  • Just because you listed an expense in a previous chapter does not mean you can leave it out here. This is the chapter where ALL the financial details should appear.
  • Don’t forget anything. There is nothing worse than handing the client a budget, then later discovering that you forgot to include some major expense. Being thorough is absolutely critical to this section!
  • Frequently forgotten items: Agency Compensation, Production Costs, Evaluation Costs, Contingency. – Be realistic. In some cases, if you go over budget your agency may end up paying the difference. But if you estimate

your expenses as higher than they actually will be, the client may decide to go to another agency. In other words, do your homework.

b. Pie Chart – This is a nice touch, to make it quick and easy for the reader to see where the bulk of the money is going. This is a

visual representation of your debits. c. Description of Specific Expenses

  • Any expense that you don’t explain elsewhere in the book, explain it here. For example, there probably is not another chapter where you explain the Agency Compensation, so do it here. If you tell me you are going to spend $5,000 on TV production, you’d better explain how you expect to get it done that cheap.
  • Provide a rationale for any expense not justified elsewhere.
  1. Conclusions a. Sell, sell, sell
  • This is the only place in the book that it is appropriate for you to be less than objective, so take advantage of it. This is your one and only chance, in writing, to convince the reader that yours is the best plan. Sell your plan!
  • This is the one place where it is okay to talk about yourselves, but don’t do too much talking about yourselves. People who talk about themselves tend to be bores, and the client isn’t really interested in you.
  • The client isn’t interested in what you did, but rather in what he/she will get out of this. Focus on the client’s benefits. – Try to make it memorable! What is the key idea in your plan – hopefully something that runs throughout your plan –

that sets it apart from the plans developed by other agencies?

  1. Appendices a. Provide anything extra that might be useful to the reader
  • Don’t ever stick a table or graphic into a document without explaining to the reader what they should learn from it. That includes materials you place in an appendix. Explain it in the body of your book, then refer the reader back to the appendix page where it’s located.
  • However, remember that readers seldom look in appendices, unless you give them a reason to do so. b. This is a tool
  • Often there is material that is useful or even important, but placing it within the main body of the book would interrupt the flow of the story you are telling. By placing it in the appendix, you can include it without interrupting that story.
  • This also can help the appearance of your book. If an item would not fit well within the general design of your book, put it in the appendix rather than have it spoil the appearance of one of the major chapters.

c. Include a bibliography – Provide a thorough list of sources, so the client can look them up if you pique his/her interest.

  1. Notes on Appearance & Professionalism a. Attention to detail
  • Even tiny things like the number of blank spaces you put before and after a subheading can affect the reader’s perception of professionalism.
  • Number every page that has any content. – Your client expects attention to detail on his/her account, so this is your chance to prove you have what it takes. – Just remember that there’s no detail too small.

b. Consistency is key #1 – Plan a “look” for your book, and carry it throughout your entire book. – Figure out type size, font, line spacing, color scheme, etc., and use the same plan on everything. Though it’s a simple

example, look at this outline. The headline is one type & size, the major headings are all boldface, the minor headings are not bold, and the note text within each sub-section is italic. This is true in every part of the memo.

c. Readability is key #2 – Do everything imaginable to improve the readability of your book. – Layout can have a major impact on readability. Indenting, outdenting, type size, font, boldfacing, etc., all can affect the

ease with which the readers can find what they want, notice important points, and understand how certain issues relate to others.

  • Serif type tends to be more readable than san serif, so choose your typeface with careful deliberation. Your aesthetic design may demand san serif, but if so then be sure you’re choosing a type size and sufficiently bold face to make it easily readable.
  • Black text on white is far easier to read than white text on black. – ALL CAPS IS HARDER TO READ than lower case text or Text That Mixes Upper And Lower Case. – Don’t skimp on headings & subheadings. They can improve readability. – As headings descend in importance, they also should descend in prominence. In other words, major headings should be

bigger or bolder or otherwise stand out the most, first subheadings should be less prominent, second subheadings (those subordinate to first subheadings) should be even less prominent. This helps the reader to know which headings go together and which ones start new topics.

  • Don’t write excessively long paragraphs, because it’s easy for a reader to lose their spot. But also don’t write in excessively short paragraphs, because then it’s harder to follow which points are closely related to others… paragraphs can help readers organize things in their own minds.
  • Make the most important points jump out at the reader. d. Grammar, Spelling & Punctuation is key #3
  • Poor grammar or writing style, typographical errors, etc., can immediately discredit your work. It looks unprofessional. Would you run a full-page ad in Time magazine that had a typo in the headline? Then why would you provide a book, an ad for your agency, to a client when the book still has such errors in it?

e. Art direction – If you have no sense of the aesthetic, find someone to help you. Make it look nice. – If you can’t make it visually impressive, at least make it clean and neat. Simple can be elegant. – Use white space and use illustrations, so that every page doesn’t look the same: one mass of grey text. – There’s an old saying: what it lacks in substance, make up for in form. Form, including visual attractiveness, can affect

a client’s perception of the substance, so it’s not unimportant. – Agencies – whether advertising or PR or marketing – tend to live on their image. And image is largely a matter of

creativity. So the appearance of a plan should show creative flair. – Avoid the common. Times Roman font is the single most common computer font, so I recommend you avoid using it as

your primary typeface. – Use some variation. You don’t need to put everything in plain black 12 point type. That was fine back in the days of a

typewriter, but today we can make documents look as if they were professionally printed, and that’s precisely what you should do! That means first-level headings can be a larger type size than second-level headings, or one can be bold and another italic, or one can be blue and another green, etc., etc.

  • Use some variation (again). Pages can be laid out in single column, double column, triple column, etc. The whole idea is to make it visually interesting and NOT COMMON. That doesn’t mean you should make it schizophrenic, with one page in single column, another in double column, and the next in triple. Anything can be overdone. But make it interesting.
  • It’s usually a bad idea to do the entire book in a single font. Headings and subheadings may use a different font than the main body of the text. This can make the plan look more aesthetically pleasing and, perhaps more important, it can enhance readability if done properly. However, choose those fonts carefully and don’t over diversify. Too many different type faces can look even more amateurish than using a single typeface.
  • Use graphics such as pictures, table, charts, and even clip art, to break up the look of a page and make it more visually interesting and less tedious to read.
  • Text should have room to breathe. If you’re, e.g., drawing a box around text, be sure to leave enough white space between the text and the line around it. Also, don’t run text too close to the “gutter” where the document will be bound. There’s nothing worse than having holes punched through the text because it was too close to the binding.
  • Be sure any graphic images you use are not rasterized (have jagged edges). It looks terrible, and it’s almost always avoidable.

f. Writing style – Writing style goes far beyond grammar, spelling & punctuation, to matters of good taste. – Use active rather than passive voice in most cases (e.g., not “the market has been stable,” but rather “the market was

stable.”) – Bias: Don’t tell the reader what you think (“our agency feels that…”), because that immediately suggests bias.

Instead, lead the reader to draw the same conclusion that you or your agency drew, by showing how the facts fit together to allow for only one logical conclusion.

  • Avoid jargon, contractions, and (unless you first define them) acronyms.
  • Use common language, don’t try to impress readers with your vocabulary. Most people who try to impress, end up using a word or phrase incorrectly and, in the end, make the kind of impression they’d rather avoid.
  • A paragraph should never have fewer than 2 sentences. Only journalists write in 1-sentence paragraphs. – Parsimony: never use a long word where a short word will serve the same purpose, and never write a sentence longer

than it needs to be. And by all means, don’t B.S. g. Tables & figures

  • Numbers: tables or vertical lists of numbers should always be aligned on the decimal point, not left or right justified. – Don’t show more detail than needed by the reader or needed to make your point. Simpler tables are easier to read. – Aesthetics are important here, too. Don’t crowd the information in the table by drawing a border so close that it

touches the numbers or information, leave a little breathing space. h. Follow conventions

  • There are norms in the publishing industry, and those norms have conditioned readers to expect certain things in “professional” publications. This is a variation on Consistency, because it is a question of being consistent with publishing conventions.
  • Underlining is almost never used in publishing. Bold and italic are used instead. – Figures turned sideways always face right. – The book title on the binding edge always reads from top to bottom. – Avoid orphaned headings, where you have a heading at the bottom of a page but the text following the heading doesn’t

appear until the next page. – There are too many to list, but if you’re not certain you’re doing it right, look in some published books. – Have some friends glance through your book and look for anything that doesn’t seem quite right. We’re all conditioned

to expect those conventions, so even someone outside of advertising may be able to spot such a mistake. i. Cover

  • Keep in mind that this book becomes a permanent record, and may be placed on a shelf next to other plans from other agencies and for other years. So, be sure the cover had all the key information on it: (a) that it’s a marketing communication campaign plan, (b) the time period covered, (c) the product/service/brand being promoted, and (d) your agency name/logo.
  • Make the client’s name/brand far more dominant than your agency’s name/logo. It’s the client that’s important.
  1. Other notes a. Objectives vs. Strategy vs. Tactics
  • Objectives are what you expect to achieve. This includes things like whom you’ll reach, with what message, and with what impact.
  • Strategy is how you will achieve those objectives. What creative approach you’ll take, what media you’ll use, what tools you’ll apply to the problem are all the decisions that you present as part of your strategy.
  • Tactics are the details, including the executions. The actual ads, the creative, is just one example of tactics A press release may be one tactic.. If you plan an event, the details of that event, where it will be held, on what date, with what music, at what cost, are all tactics.
  • There are innumerable ways to structure a campaign plansbook. The outline provided here is a good basic starting point, but it should be adapted to the product or service you are using. Consequently, the titles or headings used here are not necessarily good ones for you to use in your campaign, they are simply intended to provide you with an idea of how to put your book together. You can (and perhaps should) adapt this structure to your product and client. The key is that it should be logical, leading from point A to point B, and it should not leave out any important information. If you are uncertain whether your change is a good one, ask. If you don’t want to ask, don’t make any changes.

The post Campaigning for East Lansing Michigan with only 12,000 budget for the marketing agency. appeared first on best homeworkhelp.