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Discuss the significance of adapting your leadership style based on the situation.

Discuss the significance of adapting your leadership style based on the situation.

Assignment 3: Understanding Your Leadership Style

Due Week 7 and worth 100 points.

Instructions: Using your results from the What Sort of Leader Are You? assessment to answer the questions below.

  1. Identify the leadership styles that are well developed, need further development, and need a lot of further development. Record your response below.

Well Developed:

Needs further development:

Needs a lot of further development:

  1. Describe a specific situation where your preferred leadership style has helped you accomplish a task.
  2. Describe a specific situation where your least preferred style could have helped you accomplish a task.
  3. Explain the importance of adapting your leadership style based on the situation.

Think of someone in your personal or professional life that you would consider to be a great leader. This can be a coach, teacher, mentor, supervisor, family member, etc. Once you have identified this person, answer the following questions in the space below.

· What are some of the character traits of that person? (Character traits are the aspects of a person’s behavior and attitudes that make up that person’s personality.)

· What would you say were some of their strengths as a leader?

· Did you feel as though they were an effective leader? Why or why not?

· What leadership style would you say they are most in alignment with? Explain why.

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Do you think that a cluster randomised design was necessary in the context of this study? Provide a justification for your answer.

Do you think that a cluster randomised design was necessary in the context of this study? Provide a justification for your answer.

Please include a word count at the beginning of your document. The maximum length is 1000 words, so you will need to give brief answers.

The questions on this assignment relate to this articles (available on LMS):

Relton C, Strong M, Thomas KJ, Whelan B, Walters SJ, Burrows J, et al. Effect of Financial Incentives on Breastfeeding: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr 2018;172(2):e174523.

Question 1. What was the primary research question asked in this paper? (2.5 marks)

Question 2. What is the unit of analysis for the primary outcome, and how many units of analyses were included? (1.5 marks)

Question 3. What was the primary outcome of this study, and how was it measured? (2 marks)

Question 4. On page 3/7 (underthe subheading “statistical analysis”) the authors make the following statement in regards to individual level mother-infant feeding status outcome data collected using a questionnaire “… it became clear that this method would lead to poor estimates due to respondent bias”?What do the authors mean by this statement, and in what direction was this bias likely to have influenced the study results? (3 marks)

Question 5. Do you think that misclassification of the primary outcome may have occurred? Give reasons for your response and outline what (if any) consequences this could have had on the final result of the study? (3 marks)

Question 6. What was the rate of loss to follow-up for the primary outcome? What, if any, effect would loss have had on the final study outcomes. (2 marks)

Question 7. What proportion of the children in the intervention group actually received any vouchers as part of the intervention? What impact could this have had on the primary outcomes from this study? (3 marks)

Question 8. Interpret the key results presented in table 3 in less than 50 words. (3 marks)

Question 9. Isthere a difference in the baseline breast feeding prevalencebetween the intervention and control groups listed in table 1 that could have affected the findings? If so, have the authors addressed your concerns in the analyses presented? (4 marks)

Question 10. What justification did the authors provide for undertaking this study as a cluster design? Do you think that a cluster randomised design was necessary in the context of this study? Provide a justification for your answer. (4 marks)

Question 11. You consider re-designing the study, using a) the same cluster design, but using individual participant outcomes, and b) using individually randomised study design. Calculate the number of participants required, assuming a power of .8, a two-sided alpha of 0.05, the same effect (4% absolute difference), and a baseline prevalence of 31.7% in the control groups. For the cluster trial, assume that 100 clusters (wards) are available and the ICC is 0.024, as reported in the paper. When calculating these numbers, please use either Stata 14.1 or Stata 15’s “clustersampsi” command. Include the commands you use in your response. Complete the following table to show your results. (5 marks)
Design Clusters Participants per group Total participants
As published 92 5398 + 4612 10,010
Cluster design (individual patient)
Individual design

Question 12. Do you think the results from this trial are generalisable to Australia? Why or why not? In formulating your answer, consider the information found here – http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/6664B939E49FD9C1CA257B39000F2E4B (2 marks)


 

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Do you think that a cluster randomised design was necessary in the context of this study? Provide a justification for your answer.

Do you think that a cluster randomised design was necessary in the context of this study? Provide a justification for your answer.

Question 1

The primary question in this study was: does offering financial incentives for breastfeeding increase breastfeeding at 6 – 8 weeks post-partum in areas with low (<40%) breastfeeding prevalence?

Question 2

The unit of analysis for the primary outcome was the electoral ward area while the prevalence of breastfeeding was treated as the continuous outcome. Four units of analysis were included.

Question 3

The primary outcome of this study was the intervention effect on breastfeeding prevalence based on controlled baseline. The primary outcome was measured by a weighted multiple linear regression model where the weights for the outcomes were calculated using Donner and Klar method. The result of this analysis was based on a correlation between interclass coefficients which were estimated using Fleiss and Cuzick method. This method of analysis was intentional as it treated the electoral ward area at cluster level. When calculating for the primary data, the breast feeding prevalence at the electoral ward area level were analysed on a case basis where the number of infants with documented history of breastfeeding status was used as the denominator. Infant without breastfeeding outcome data were excluded in the analysis.

Question 4

Respondent bias refers to a tendency by the respondents in a study to give false and misleading information about the information being sought. Respondent bias are often prevalent where the participants are expected to offer self-reports about themselves, or in situations where structured interviews or survey designs are adopted. A wide range of factors can induce response bias, nevertheless, all area related to the fact that human beings respond to stimuli based on an integration of multiple source of information. In this case, the motivation for incentives may have affected the mothers to lie about the status of breastfeeding.

Where respondents give false information about surveys, these responses have a major impact on the validity of the questionnaires and therefore the results of the study. In this case, the false information would have resulted in a conclusion offering financial incentives for breastfeeding increase breastfeeding in areas with low breastfeeding prevalence.

Question 5

I do not think misclassification of the primary outcome occurred. The researchers designed the study in a way that allowed precise acquisition of relevant data for appropriate answering of the question raised. The classifications in the primary outcomes captured all the aspect required to answer the research question. If misclassification of the primary outcome would have occurred, the final results would not be reliable and therefore leading to a wrong conclusion.

Question 6

The rates for lost of follow up in the primary outcome were 7.9% for the intervention group, and 8.2% for the control group. The loss to follow up in this case was insignificant and did not have any impact on the final outcome of the study. However, if any major loss would have been experienced, the final result would be significantly skewed.

Question 7

Within the six-month period, a total of 2179 representing (40.4 %) of all the eligible infants claimed for vouchers in the intervention group. Claiming for voucher positively impact on the primary outcome because it suggested that the intervention (financial incentive) was influencing the decision to improve the level of breastfeeding in the intervention group as compared to the control group and baseline statistics.

Question 8

There was a 6.2 % increase in breastfeeding after the intervention in the six-month period. The impact of the intervention efforts was more in quarter 3 and 4. In the nutshell, financial incentives incrementally result in increased rates of breastfeeding within the six-month period.

Question 9

Based on the parameters compared as the baseline characteristics in the intervention and control group in table 1, there were no significant population differences that could have resulted to major impact on the final results. Furthermore, there was no significant differences in the number of infants due, the baseline breastfeeding prevalence, and deprivation scores. However, the total tally of births within the six month period in both the control and intervention group differs significantly. The intervention group had more births than the control group, meaning the rates of breastfeeding reports were higher in the intervention group than the control group. The researchers have not addressed this concern in the analysis provided yet the difference in tally could have affected the findings.

Question 10

The author argues that a cluster design would assess an area level impact of financial incentives on breastfeeding. The cluster randomised design was necessary in the context of the study because of its ability to eliminate bias during the randomization process. The researcher selected an expert blinded to ward names to use computer generated random sequence allocation method to allocate the clusters as either intervention or control group.

Question 11

Clustersampsi 0.317 1, alpha(0.8) power(.05) ratio(0.04)

Estimated sample size for two-sample comparison of proportions

Test Ho: p1 = p2, where p1 is the proportion in population 1

and p2 is the proportion in population 2

Assumptions:

alpha = 0.8000 (two-sided)

power = 0.0500

p1 = 0.3170

p2 = 1.0000

n2/n1 = 0.024

Estimated required sample sizes:

n1 = 5867

n2 = 5013
Design Clusters Participants per group Total participants
As published 92 5398 + 4612 10,010
Cluster design (individual patient) 100 5867+5013 10880
Individual design 86 4959+4398 9357

Question 12

The results from this trial cannot be generalisable to Australia because of differences in contexts and test factors, however, it is apparent from the data on breastfeeding presented by the Australian Bureau of Statistics that there is urgent need for research to determine which factor can improve the prevalence of breast feeding in Australia.


 

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Integrative Intercultural Communication task

Integrative Intercultural Communication task

prepare a 1,750- to 2,100-word integrative paper, drawing on the knowledge you have acquired throughout the course. Analyze and demonstrate an effective strategy for intercultural communication within a particular setting, such as tourism, global business, education, or health care.

Include the following topics and questions below as they pertain to strategies within your chosen setting:

What is the impact of cultural variation on intercultural, interpersonal relationships within the industry?

How is personal dignity impacted in this intercultural industry setting?

How might interpersonal relationships improve with the implementation of your strategy as a part of an intercultural experience?

What are a few of the setting specific roles of cultural variations in intercultural, interpersonal relationships?

How will your strategy improve interpersonal relationships within the setting and foster intercultural competence?

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Respond to The Below Question In APA Format_300 Words

Respond to The Below Question In APA Format_300 Words

business & Finance homework task

explain the ideas that are essential while designing an organization.

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Analyze theories from nursing and relevant fields with respect to their components, relationships among the components, logic of the propositions, comprehensiveness, and utility to advanced nursing.

Analyze theories from nursing and relevant fields with respect to their components, relationships among the components, logic of the propositions, comprehensiveness, and utility to advanced nursing.

Importance of theory in Nursing

Paper details:
The purpose of this papper is to a) identify a nursing theory,
b) analyze the importance of the selected theory to the nursing profession, c) summarize key concepts and relationships among the concepts of the selected nursing theory,
d) present views of the selected theory on areas of specialization, and e) communicate ideas in a clear, succinct and scholarly manner.

This papper should demonstrate the ability to:
1 .Analyze theories from nursing and relevant fields with respect to their components, relationships among the components, logic of the propositions, comprehensiveness, and utility to advanced nursing.
2. Communicate the analysis of and proposed strategies for the use of a theory in nursing practice.
3. Demonstrate logical and creative thinking in the analysis and application of a theory to nursing practice.

In this 5-6 page paper (not including the title or reference pages in the page count), the introduction contains a few statements about nursing theory in general, identification of
one nursing theory to be used in this paper, and the sections of the paper. The selected nursing theory can be from any of the three types of theories:
• grand theory (e.g., Roy adaptation model),
• middle-range theory (e.g., Benner’s model of skill acquisition),or
• practice theory (e.g., Im’s theory on the pain experience of cancer

1. The first section of the paper is a description of the importance of nursing theory, in general.
2. Key points and inter-relationships of those points of the selected theory are summarized. Biographical or historical information about the selected nursing theory or the nurse theorist is not included.
3. The selected nursing theory’s views or ideas about nursing leadership, nursing education, health policy, or nursing informatics (only one of these specializations) are discussed briefly, using two examples from real life to illustrate the views. Real-life examples come from a student’s own practice or from the scholarly literature.
4. The paper is concluded by presentation of insights gained (what was learned) about nursing theory through writing the paper.


 

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Assignment-Social Science homework task

Assignment-Social Science homework task

All applicants must submit a professional writing sample in response to the two prompts below. The submission must be between 1 and 2 pages and must follow proper APA formatting. Please reference this site (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/) for guidelines on APA formatting (an abstract is not required). Pick one of the values of the Health Services Administration Department and explain what that value means to you and how you will carry it with you into your future career as a healthcare administrator. Values: Empathy, multicultural, contemporary, leadership, and integrity. Present the two sides of what you believe to be an ethical dilemma healthcare administrators are faced with today. You may reference the American College of Healthcare Executives Code of Ethics to help with identifying an ethical issue.

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Marketing Case

Marketing Case

Case:

Applied Steel is one of two major producers of wide-flange beams in the United States. The other producer is USX. A number of small firms also compete, but they tend to compete mainly on price in nearby markets where they can keep transport costs low. Typically, all interested competitors charge the same delivered price, which varies some depending on how far the customer is from either of the two major producers. In other words, local prices are higher in more remote geographic markets.

Wide-flange beams are one of the principal steel products used in construction. They are the modern version of what are commonly known as I-beams. USX rolls a full range of wide flanges from 6 to 36 inches. Applied Steel entered the field about 30 years ago, when it converted an existing mill to produce this product. Applied Steel’s mill is limited to flanges up to 24 inches, however. At the time of the conversion, Applied Steel felt that customer usage of sizes over 24 inches was likely to be small. In recent years, however, there has been a definite trend toward the larger and heavier sections.

The beams produced by the various competitors are almost identical—since customers buy according to standard dimensional and physical-property specifications. In the smaller size range, there are a number of competitors. But above 14 inches, only USX and Applied Steel compete. Above 24 inches, USX has no competition.

All the steel companies sell these beams through their own sales forces. The customer for these beams is called a structural fabricator. This fabricator typically buys unshaped beams and other steel products from the mills and shapes them according to the specifications of each customer. The fabricator sells to the contractor or owner of the structure being built.

The structural fabricator usually must sell on a competitive-bid basis. The bidding is done on the plans and specifications prepared by an architectural or structural engineering firm and forwarded to the fabricator by the contractor who wants the bid. Although thousands of structural fabricators compete in the United States, relatively few account for the majority of wide-flange tonnage in the various geographical regions. Since the price is the same from all producers, they typically buy beams on the basis of availability (i.e., availability to meet production schedules) and performance (i.e., reliability in meeting the promised delivery schedule).

Several years ago, Applied Steel’s production schedulers saw that they were going to have an excess of hot-rolled plate capacity in the near future. At the same time, development of a new production technology allowed Applied Steel to weld three plates together into a section with the same dimensional and physical properties and almost the same cross section as a rolled wide-flange beam. This development appeared to offer two key advantages to Applied Steel: (1) It would enable Applied Steel to use some of the excess plate capacity, and (2) larger sizes of wide-flange beams could be offered. Cost analysts showed that by using a fully depreciated plate mill and the new welding process it would be possible to produce and sell larger wide-flange beams at competitive prices—that is, at the same price charged by USX.

Applied Steel’s managers were excited about the possibilities, because customers usually appreciate having a second source of supply. Also, the new approach would allow the production of up to a 60-inch flange. With a little imagination, these larger sizes might offer a significant breakthrough for the construction industry.

Applied Steel decided to go ahead with the new project. As the production capacity was converted, the salespeople were kept well informed of the progress. They, in turn, promoted this new capability to their customers, emphasizing that soon they would be able to offer a full range of beam products. Applied Steel sent several general information letters to a broad mailing list but did not advertise. The market development section of the sales department was very busy explaining the new possibilities of the process to fabricators at engineering trade associations and shows.

When the new production line was finally ready to go, the market reaction was disappointing. No orders came in and none Page 612were expected. In general, customers were wary of the new product. The structural fabricators felt they couldn’t use it without the approval of their customers, because it would involve deviating from the specified rolled sections. And as long as they could still get the rolled section, why make the extra effort for something unfamiliar, especially with no price advantage. The salespeople were also bothered with a very common question: How can you take plate that you sell for about $460 per ton and make a product that you can sell for $470 per ton? This question came up frequently and tended to divert the whole discussion to the cost of production rather than to the way the new product might be used or its value in the construction process.

Evaluate Applied Steel’s situation. What should Applied Steel do?

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Marketing Case

Marketing Case

Case:

Applied Steel is one of two major producers of wide-flange beams in the United States. The other producer is USX. A number of small firms also compete, but they tend to compete mainly on price in nearby markets where they can keep transport costs low. Typically, all interested competitors charge the same delivered price, which varies some depending on how far the customer is from either of the two major producers. In other words, local prices are higher in more remote geographic markets.

Wide-flange beams are one of the principal steel products used in construction. They are the modern version of what are commonly known as I-beams. USX rolls a full range of wide flanges from 6 to 36 inches. Applied Steel entered the field about 30 years ago, when it converted an existing mill to produce this product. Applied Steel’s mill is limited to flanges up to 24 inches, however. At the time of the conversion, Applied Steel felt that customer usage of sizes over 24 inches was likely to be small. In recent years, however, there has been a definite trend toward the larger and heavier sections.

The beams produced by the various competitors are almost identical—since customers buy according to standard dimensional and physical-property specifications. In the smaller size range, there are a number of competitors. But above 14 inches, only USX and Applied Steel compete. Above 24 inches, USX has no competition.

All the steel companies sell these beams through their own sales forces. The customer for these beams is called a structural fabricator. This fabricator typically buys unshaped beams and other steel products from the mills and shapes them according to the specifications of each customer. The fabricator sells to the contractor or owner of the structure being built.

The structural fabricator usually must sell on a competitive-bid basis. The bidding is done on the plans and specifications prepared by an architectural or structural engineering firm and forwarded to the fabricator by the contractor who wants the bid. Although thousands of structural fabricators compete in the United States, relatively few account for the majority of wide-flange tonnage in the various geographical regions. Since the price is the same from all producers, they typically buy beams on the basis of availability (i.e., availability to meet production schedules) and performance (i.e., reliability in meeting the promised delivery schedule).

Several years ago, Applied Steel’s production schedulers saw that they were going to have an excess of hot-rolled plate capacity in the near future. At the same time, development of a new production technology allowed Applied Steel to weld three plates together into a section with the same dimensional and physical properties and almost the same cross section as a rolled wide-flange beam. This development appeared to offer two key advantages to Applied Steel: (1) It would enable Applied Steel to use some of the excess plate capacity, and (2) larger sizes of wide-flange beams could be offered. Cost analysts showed that by using a fully depreciated plate mill and the new welding process it would be possible to produce and sell larger wide-flange beams at competitive prices—that is, at the same price charged by USX.

Applied Steel’s managers were excited about the possibilities, because customers usually appreciate having a second source of supply. Also, the new approach would allow the production of up to a 60-inch flange. With a little imagination, these larger sizes might offer a significant breakthrough for the construction industry.

Applied Steel decided to go ahead with the new project. As the production capacity was converted, the salespeople were kept well informed of the progress. They, in turn, promoted this new capability to their customers, emphasizing that soon they would be able to offer a full range of beam products. Applied Steel sent several general information letters to a broad mailing list but did not advertise. The market development section of the sales department was very busy explaining the new possibilities of the process to fabricators at engineering trade associations and shows.

When the new production line was finally ready to go, the market reaction was disappointing. No orders came in and none Page 612were expected. In general, customers were wary of the new product. The structural fabricators felt they couldn’t use it without the approval of their customers, because it would involve deviating from the specified rolled sections. And as long as they could still get the rolled section, why make the extra effort for something unfamiliar, especially with no price advantage. The salespeople were also bothered with a very common question: How can you take plate that you sell for about $460 per ton and make a product that you can sell for $470 per ton? This question came up frequently and tended to divert the whole discussion to the cost of production rather than to the way the new product might be used or its value in the construction process.

Evaluate Applied Steel’s situation. What should Applied Steel do?

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