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Public Health-Social Science homework Assignment

Public Health-Social Science homework Assignment

Understanding the complex processes by which a policy is developed and implemented will help you become familiar with identifying factors that influence policy decisions. In this assignment, you will explore strategies for early stage breast cancer prevention.

Assume you are a health policy adviser and write a 5-7 page policy brief covering the following:

Summarize the health problem, new findings on breast cancer prevention, and the consequences of not addressing this problem.

Briefly discuss the social, political, and economic implications of breast cancer prevention.

Summarize the current legislation at the state and federal level that addresses breast cancer prevention and the shortcomings of each.

Make 3-4 recommendations on what should be done in response to the issues identified.

Use the readings for the week, the South University Online Library, and the Internet to develop your policy brief.

Submission Details:

Submit your response in a Microsoft Word document to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

Name your document SU_PHE6201_W4_Project_LastName_FirstInitial.doc.

On a separate page, cite all sources using the APA format.

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Summarize the health problem, new findings on breast cancer prevention

Summarize the health problem, new findings on breast cancer prevention

Understanding the complex processes by which a policy is developed and implemented will help you become familiar with identifying factors that influence policy decisions. In this assignment, you will explore strategies for early stage breast cancer prevention.

Assume you are a health policy adviser and write a 5-7 page policy brief covering the following:

Summarize the health problem, new findings on breast cancer prevention, and the consequences of not addressing this problem.

Briefly discuss the social, political, and economic implications of breast cancer prevention.

Summarize the current legislation at the state and federal level that addresses breast cancer prevention and the shortcomings of each.

Make 3-4 recommendations on what should be done in response to the issues identified.

Use the readings for the week, the South University Online Library, and the Internet to develop your policy brief.

Submission Details:

Submit your response in a Microsoft Word document to the Submissions Area by the due date assigned.

Name your document SU_PHE6201_W4_Project_LastName_FirstInitial.doc.

On a separate page, cite all sources using the APA format.

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750 Word paper (Body) Business And Society

750 Word paper (Body) Business And Society

Social Responsibility of Business

Research a Fortune 500 company. Examine the company’s social responsibility policies. How does the company demonstrate its duty? For example, you may choose areas such as labor practices, environmental and human rights issues or special interest (e.g., animal rights, women’s rights, technology transfer, philanthropy, etc.) to describe how a company demonstrates its duty.

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Historical Paper #2

Historical Paper #2

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the immediate cause of World War I. But the events that led to the Great War go further back into the nineteenth century. As with the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part.

Analyze how the forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism irrevocably led to World War I. Pay particular attention to the rise of Pan-Slavism in Eastern Europe and the corresponding rise of nationalism in German-speaking states. Analyze how the alliance system contributed to the ultimate outbreak of war.

Then analyze the events that drew the United States into World War I. Clearly discuss why America first remained neutral between1914-1917. What role did ethnicity play in America’s neutrality? Then identify and analyze the specific events that led to America’s entrance into the war. Evaluate America’s contribution to the war effort and to what extent America’s entry contributed to the end of the war. Finally, analyze the events that led to the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles. What effect did this have on America’s role in the world during the 1920s and 1930s? Pay particular attention to the role of President Woodrow Wilson both during and after the war, in particular, his efforts to establish the League of Nations.

This paper must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including the References page) and utilize no less than four academic quality sources. Margins should be no more than one inch (right and left) and the essay should be composed in an appropriate font and size. Sources must be documented and cited using APA format.

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Analyze the events that drew the United States into World War I

Analyze the events that drew the United States into World War I

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the immediate cause of World War I. But the events that led to the Great War go further back into the nineteenth century. As with the Boxer Rebellion of 1900, nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part.

Analyze how the forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism irrevocably led to World War I. Pay particular attention to the rise of Pan-Slavism in Eastern Europe and the corresponding rise of nationalism in German-speaking states. Analyze how the alliance system contributed to the ultimate outbreak of war.

Then analyze the events that drew the United States into World War I. Clearly discuss why America first remained neutral between1914-1917. What role did ethnicity play in America’s neutrality? Then identify and analyze the specific events that led to America’s entrance into the war. Evaluate America’s contribution to the war effort and to what extent America’s entry contributed to the end of the war. Finally, analyze the events that led to the defeat of the Treaty of Versailles. What effect did this have on America’s role in the world during the 1920s and 1930s? Pay particular attention to the role of President Woodrow Wilson both during and after the war, in particular, his efforts to establish the League of Nations.

This paper must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including the References page) and utilize no less than four academic quality sources. Margins should be no more than one inch (right and left) and the essay should be composed in an appropriate font and size. Sources must be documented and cited using APA format.

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Ethical and Cross-Cultural Negotiations.

Ethical and Cross-Cultural Negotiations.

Chose one person to reply to:

ALBORES

  1. Were Manning’s actions legal under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and what are the possible penalties for violating the act?

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act states (1977) “It shall be unlawful for any issuer…to offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment of any money, or offer, gift, promise to give… “. Manning assumed the duty of an issuer because he attended dinner with the prime minister to discuss the contract. Then, Manning offered to fly the prime minister to New York, which he then promised to pay for all of the prime minister’s expenses. However, according to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (1977) a promise or offer is acceptable if the expense was ”reasonable and bona fide expenditure, such as travel and lodging expenses, incurred by or on behalf of a foreign official… was directly related to the promotion, demonstration, or explanation of products or services”. Manning promised to fly out the prime minister because he wanted to “discuss business further” (UMUC, 2019). Further, Manning used company funds to take the prime minister to luxurious activities and restaurants because he wanted to retain the contract from the prime minister.

Even though Manning did not directly give money to the prime minister, he authorized payment for the prime minster’s two-week stay, which did not involve discussing the contract. Out of the two weeks, business was only conducted for a day. In addition, Manning can be held responsible for bribing the customs officials at Neristan. According to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (1977), it is unlawful to influence “any act or decision of such foreign official in his official capacity… omit to do any act in violation of the lawful duty of such official”. Manning influenced the customs officials because Manning gave each custom official $100 to clear the shipment. Custom officials act on behalf of the Neristan government and sometimes require large shipments to be inspected. Manny will likely be held responsible for offering payment to the customs officials in exchange for expediting the company’s shipment.

If Manning violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, he could face imprisonment. Also, the company may have to pay the penalty. The penalty for violating the act is “a fine of up to $2 million per violation. Likewise, an individual may face up to five years in prison and/or a fine of $250,000 per violation of the anti-bribery provision” (Woody, 2018, p. 275).

  1. Were Manning’s actions legal under the UK Bribery Act and what are the possible penalties for violating the act?

Based on the UK Bribery Act (2010), an individual is guilty of bribing an official if “intention is to influence F (government official) in F’s capacity as a foreign public official…intend to obtain or retain business, or an advantage in the conduct of business.”. Manning bribed the prime minister because he stated: “If, after we are done conducting business, you want to see the sites, I can show you around the city, and you can stay on us for a while.” (UMUC, 2019). If the contract were to go through, the prime minister would be given the opportunity to stay for two weeks to explore the city. Then, Manning bribed the customs officials by providing each of them $100. Manning tried to obtain an advantage in the conduct of the shipment because it would take weeks to clear the load. By paying the customs officials, the load was cleared within a day. Based on the UK Bribery Act, Manning violated the law.

Penalties for violating the UK Bribery Act include imprisonment and a fine. If the organization allowed or was aware of the bribery, the company will be held accountable as well. The penalty for the offense that proceeds without a jury is imprisonment for a “term not exceeding 12 months, or to a fine not exceeding the statutory maximum, or to both,” (UK Bribery Act of 2010). Whereas the penalty for being convicted as an individual can face imprisonment for up to ten years along with a fine. The company can face an unlimited fine depending on the severity of the offense.

  1. Were Manning’s actions ethical, particularly in light of differing cultural norms?

While some cultures conduct “negotiations as a business activity”, some cultures “develop a trusting relationship” before negotiating (Dias, 2012). According to the prime minister, the culture of Neristan values relationships. The prime minister then stated, “It is customary in Neristan for business associates to help each other prosper” (UMUC, 2019). It is possible that Manning wanted to further his relationship with the prime minister by attending a Broadway show and traveling the city together. Spending two weeks in the town would allow Manning to form a relationship with the minister. However, Manning did act unethically because the restaurants and the hotel the prime minister stayed at was expensive.

On the contrary, Manning did act ethically because he turned down the prime minister’s request for a wire transfer. Any payment used to influence a decision is considered bribery (Jimenez & Pulo, n.d). Overall, it is believed that Manning acted unethically because he bribed the prime minister through high-end restaurants and activities in exchange for the contract.

References

15 U.S. Code § 78dd–1 – Prohibited foreign trade practices by issuers. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15/78dd-1

Dias, L. P. (2012). Ethical and Cross-Cultural Negotiations. In Beginning Human Relations. Beginning Human Relations. Retrieved from https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/beginning-human-relations/index.html.

Jimenez, G. C., & Pulos, E. (2016). Good corporation, bad corporation: Corporate social responsibility in the global economy. Geneseo, NY: Open SUNY Textbooks, Milne Library (IITG PI), State University of New York at Geneseo.

UK Bribery Act of 2010. C. 23 §6 (2010).

UMUC. (2019). Global Shippers, Inc. Retrieved from https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/course-resource-list/global-shippers-inc.html?ou=345131

Woody, K. (2018). ““Declinations With Disgorgement” In FCPA Enforcement. University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform, 269-311. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=bf1b2351-c005-4f41-adf5-ac90958a9d68@sessionmgr102

RODAS

Were Manning’s actions legal under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and what are the possible penalties for violating the act?

Under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), Manning’s actions were illegal when it came to the travel, entertainment and other value given to the Neristan prime minister. Although Manning did not give the prime minister then $100,000, he requested in his account, he made up for it by paying for an extravagant dinner of $3,500, luxurious penthouse in New York, first-class flight Los Angeles, Broadway entertainment and the paid two weeks stay. Manning knew that his actions would incentivize the prime minister to “award” Gold Shippers, Inc. the contract based on the travel and the entertainment which may have exceeded the $100,000 payment. It is clear that small gifts and token of appreciation are acceptable when negotiating with other government officials or business people, but Manning exceed that exception by spending large amounts of money to ensure a contract was granted when otherwise it would not have happened. The Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC), view the larger or more extravagant the gift, the more likely it was given with an improper purpose (U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Enforcement Division, 2012).

Possible individual penalties for violating the FCPA, may include criminal penalties up to $250,000 in fines per violation and up to 5 years in prison. Civil penalties up to $16,000 per violations. Companies may also be held liable with criminal penalties have fines up to $2 million per violation and civil penalties up to $16,000. It is important to note that employers cannot pay the fine for their employees or agents (n.d.).

Were Manning’s actions legal under the UK Bribery Act and what are the possible penalties for violating the act?

Under the UK Bribery Act, “facilitation payments are not permitted and are considered illegal bribes (n.d.).” Furthermore, the UK Bribery Act prohibits private-to-private bribery, or from private persons as well as public officials (n.d.).

The penalties under the UK Bribery Act may result in longer prison sentences for individuals (10 years) and there are no caps on fines, therefore allowing both individuals and companies to face unlimited fines for violating its provisions (n.d.).

Were Manning’s actions ethical, particularly in light of differing cultural norms?

According to Global Business Ethics (n.d.), “Paying bribes is relatively common in many countries…” but it is not common or accepted in the United States. Manning’s actions were unethical because he knows that under FCPA he is not allowed to give other governmental officials extravagant gifts that may give rise to investigations. Furthermore, under the FCPA, Manning was allowed to offer “grease payments” in order to “”to expedite or to secure the performance of a routine governmental action by a foreign official, political party, or party official” (FCPA, 15 U.S.C. 78dd-2).” However, this is not accepted by the UK Bribery Act, so it can also be considered unethical behavior that may result in Manning and the company to be penalize with extensive fines.

In conclusion, Manning’s actions were unethical because even though some gift giving is expected in countries like Japan, it is established that these gifts cannot be extravagant nor go over preset limits.

Reference:

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, Pub. L. 95-213, 91 Stat. 1494, codified as amended at 15 U.S.C. §§78dd-1 et seq. Retrieved from: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-91/pdf/STATUTE-91-Pg1494.pdf

Global Business Ethics. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/learning-resourcelist1/global-business-ethics.html?ou=345131

U.S. Department of Justice, Criminal Division, and U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Enforcement Division. (2012). A resource guide to the FCPA U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Retrieved from: https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/criminal-fraud/legacy/2015/01/16/guide.pdf

WASHINGTON

Class,

First, slipping $ 100 to the customs officials was illegal. Under the Act, no issuer from any entity whose shares are publicly traded on the US exchange or any director, employee or agents may corruptly pay, offer or authorize anything to a foreign official to secure an improper advantage (Randall, L. H). Since Manning was not acting on behalf of the company by offering the bribe, he may receive fine up to $100,000 or an imprisonment for up to five years. The above provisions are meant to make companies plan and sustain accounting systems which tightly control and accurately record all dispositions of business assets.

Secondly, under the UK Bribery Act, everything Manning did was illegal. The Act states that the offense of bribing other people comprises the presentation, making promises or handing over fiscal or other benefits with the intent of inducing or rewarding inopportune conducts (Rose, C). The $100 to the customs officials was a bride, and the extended trip was a promise that would lead to an advantage. According to this Act, therefore, Manning knew or believed the Nerista’s Prime Minister’s acceptance of the gifts would amount to improper conduct. Under this, Manning is subject to a maximum of 10 years’ imprisonment or even an unlimited fine. This Act sought after placing a burden of proof on companies to show they have adequate procedures in place that would prevent bribery (Morgenthau, H. J). It is the absence of this procedure that Manning’s acts became unethical.

Even though some of Manning’s actions were generous, there was a hidden intention, which makes everything he did unethical. Even considering the difference in cultural norms, corruption is illegal and unacceptable in almost all countries (Bowie, N. E). Gaining an advantage by his hospitality offer and bribing the official was unethical, and morally, he was supposed to express social responsibility to carry out business without engaging in such actions which would influence actions.

Bowie, N. E. (2017). Business ethics: A Kantian perspective. Cambridge University Press.

Doh, J. P., Rodriguez, P., Uhlenbruck, K., Collins, J., & Eden, L. (2003). Coping with corruption in foreign markets. Academy of Management Perspectives, 17(3), 114-127.

Morgenthau, H. J. (2017). Positivism, functionalism, and international law. In The Nature of International Law (pp. 159-184). Routledge.

Randall, L. H. (1997). Multilateralization of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Minn. J. Global Trade, 6, 657.

Rose, C. (2012). The UK Bribery Act 2010 and accompanying guidance: Belated implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 61(2), 485-499.

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DREAGER

Team,

Where Manning’s actions legal under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and what are the possible penalties for violating the act?

According to Goodwin (2019), a company or business can adjust its business practices to that county its operating in to the culture practices expect for gift giving of anything in monetarily to government officials to gain advantage of a contract which Manning did illegally. Manning violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which is enforced by the US Government. Though Manning did not provide direct payment to the prime minister of Neristan, Manning paid for the expensive meal that could be viewed by the Department of Justice as an extravagant meal, paid for a trip to New York, and a trip to Los Angels (Global Shippers, Inc., 2019) all of which is categorized by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)(2019) as illegal by influencing the prime minister to award this contract.

Manning and Global Shippers could be “subject not only to substantial fines, but also to jail time” (Goodwin, 2019). Both Manning and Global Shippers are at risk and accountable for this action because Manning utilized the corporate accounts. These accounts are to be in accordance to the accounting provisions and follow the anti bribery provisions of the FCPA Foreign corrupt practices act, (2019).

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. (2019). Learning resource. University of Maryland University College. https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/learning-resourcelist1/foreign-corrupt-practicesact.html?ou=345131

Global Shippers, Inc. (2019). Course Resource. University of Maryland University College. https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/course-resource-list/global-shippers-inc.html?ou=345131

Goodwin R. (2019). Learning Resource. University of Maryland University College. https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/course-resource-list/introduction-to-crossculturalawareness.html?ou=345131

Were Manning’s actions legal under the UK Bribery Act and what are the possible penalties for violating the act?

Manning’s actions of paying the customs personnel were legal under the UK Bribery Act. When reviewing what are facilitating or expediting payments (2019), Manning did not ask to overlook documents but simply expedite the inspection to facilitate the delivery, all of which are legal in accordance to the UK Bribery Act and facilitating or expediting payments (2019). However, his bribery of the prime minister where prohibited in accordance to Global Bribery (2019) because he is a public official in the country of Neristan. Additionally the UK prohibits private-to-private bribery’s, which Manning facilitated with dinner and the trips to the US.

Penalties for violation of the UK bribery act for both Manning and Global Shippers are extensive. Both may be held for civil and criminal penalties. According to Global Bribery (2019),

“up to $250,000 in fines per violation and up to 5 years in prison and civil penalties of up to $16,000 per violation. For companies, the criminal penalties may include a fine up to $2 million per violation and civil penalties up to $16,000 per violation. Moreover, employers are not permitted to pay the fines of their employees or agents” (Global Bribery, 2019).

Manning has placed both himself and Global Shippers at serious risk in accordance to the UK guidelines. And it would be recommended that Global Shippers and Manning get legal counsel, soonest.

Global Bribery. (2019). Learning Resource. University of Maryland University College. https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/learning-resourcelist1/global-bribery.html?ou=345131

What are Facilitating or Expediting Payments. (2019). Learning Resources. University of Maryland University College. https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/learning-resourcelist1/what-are-facilitatingorexpeditingpayments.html?ou=345131

Were Manning’s actions ethical, particularly in light of the differing cultural norms?

Manning’s and ultimately Global Shippers actions were not ethical and will be under scrutiny by the Department of Justice. According to Gifts, Travel, Entertainment, and other things of value (2019), the meal will be considered extravagant in that it was the most expensive wine on the menu and not needed. The travel to New York paid by the corporation was ethically okay, however, the most expensive penthouse is ethically wrong and a seven-day trip to Los Angles paid by the corporation is extremely excessive with the presence of Manning, an employee.

Manning was not engaging in cultural norms with the prime minister. The review of County Cultural Differences (2019), Manning had no intentions of the workplaces values, attitudes and beliefs of the culture in the country of Neristan but to only secure the $20 Million revenue deal, which is ethically wrong.

Country Cultural Differences. (2019). Leaning Topic. University of Maryland University College. https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/learning-topic-list/country-culturaldifferences.html?ou=345131

Gifts, Travel, Entertainment, and Other Things of Value. (2019). Learning Resource. University of Maryland University College. https://leocontent.umuc.edu/content/umuc/tgs/mba/mba630/2191/learning-resourcelist1/gifts-travel-entertainmentandotherthingsofvalue.html?ou=345131

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Give A Substantive Response To At Least One Posting From A Colleague In The Discussion, Critiquing The Initial Post With Rationale Based On Legal And Ethical Analysis

Give A Substantive Response To At Least One Posting From A Colleague In The Discussion, Critiquing The Initial Post With Rationale Based On Legal And Ethical Analysis

Management homework task

Provide a substantive response to at least one posting from a colleague (chose from the document below) in the discussion, critiquing the initial post with rationale based on legal and ethical analysis.

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Best Practices In Community Corrections

Best Practices In Community Corrections

In this assignment, you will review a case study, assess the individual based on the information provided, and propose evidence-based practices for helping this individual transition back into society.

Imagine you have been asked to create a transition plan for an individual transitioning out of an institutional correctional facility and into society. You will be presenting your transition plan to your supervisor in a detailed report that includes research as a rationale for your plan.

Review the Case of Robert (below).

Write a 700- to 1,050-word report with your plan to assist the individual in this case study, in which you:

Describe why community correctional assessment is necessary for this individual.

Use a community correctional assessment to determine the needs of this individual. Make sure to choose a specific assessment tool that can be used to determine the client’s needs (e.g., the MMPI-2, TCUDS, etc.).

Describe evidence-based practices for working with this individual to address his specific needs as he or she re-enters society.

Include a minimum of 2 sources.

Format your report according to APA guidelines.

Case of Robert

Robert is a 25 year-old male who was previously charged with armed robbery. He has served his time in an institutional correctional facility, and is now transitioning to community corrections. In his criminal history, he has 4 previous arrests, 2 for burglary and 2 for drug possession.

He had a history of heroin abuse prior to incarceration. He disclosed that prior to incarceration he had been using heroin for approximately 6 years. He has stated that he has not used heroin while being incarcerated. He stated that he has also used alcohol and marijuana in the past. He stated that he doesn’t want to do heroin anymore, and believes he will not have cravings as he transitions back into society.

Robert has struggled with bipolar disorder for a few years now. While incarcerated, he received weekly counseling sessions, as well as medication. He does not like how he feels on his medication, but he has not had a manic or depressive episode since being medicated.

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Applied Sciences homework Assignment

Applied Sciences homework Assignment

Title

Start Date

Classroom Expectations – Example of a Discussion Post

Jan 8, 2019 12:30 AM

Maricopa County Department of Health

Maricopa County is the third largest local public health jurisdiction in the United States; it is roughly the size of Massachusetts (Maricopa County Department of Public Health [MCDPH], 2014). The county contains 27 cities and towns and at least parts of five sovereign American Indian reservations (MCDPH, 2014). Every five years the county does a community health assessment in which it identifies most important health concerns (MCDPH, 2014). These concerns are based on prevalence in the community, existence of health disparities, potential for prevention impact, and the highest number of years of potential life lost (MCDPH, 2014). Two health concerns identified in the 2012 community health assessment are obesity, lung cancer, and access to health care.

Common Health Problems in Our Community

Obesity

Obesity affects one in four adults and one in seven children in Maricopa County and increases the risk for comorbidities such as heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers (MCDPH, 2014). Obesity disproportionately affects Hispanics and American Indian as compared to white or other ethnic groups (MCDPH, 2014). According to the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (2014), If obesity continues to rise at the present rate, by 2020 Maricopa County adults will spend $910 million more on healthcare. However, if obesity declines to 1987 levels, Maricopa County adults will spend $945 million less on healthcare by the year 2020. This is a $1.85 billion difference in the cost of these alternative futures. Combating obesity aligns with Healthy People 2020 goal of promoting health and reducing chronic disease risk by eating a healthy diet and having a healthy body weight (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2016). Additional, reducing obesity would also be related to Healthy People 2020 goal of physical activity (HHS, 2016). One of the benefits of physical activity is that it promotes muscular fitness and reduces body fat (HHS, 2016).

Lung Cancer

The leading cause of death in Maricopa County is cancer with lung cancer causing the most deaths (MCDPH, 2014). Lung cancer death rates in the county is highest among Whites and African Americans (MCDPH, 2014). Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer and one out of every seven adults in the county smokes (MCDPH, 2014). The cost impact from cancer is substantial with over $3.72 billion was spent on cancer and related treatments in 2004 (MCDPH, 2014). Healthy People 2020 has a goal of decreasing illness, disability, and death that is related to tobacco use and exposure secondhand smoke as this is the single most preventable cause of disease and death in the United States (HHS, 2016).

Access to Health Care

Access to healthcare can influence all other components of health. In Maricopa County, one in four residents have not seen a provider in the past year, while one in six delayed or did not get medical care because of cost, and one in seven does not have health insurance (MCDPH, 2014). Lower income residents were less likely to visit a doctor or have a Primary Care Provider (MCDPH, 2014).

Conclusion

The goal of improving access to comprehensive and quality health care is the same as Healthy People 2020 (HHS, 2016). To help achieve this goal, the use of Nurse Practitioners (NP) and nurse managed health clinics would expand access to health care for the low-income, uninsured, and underserved populations (Sutter-Barrett, Sutter-Dalrymple, & Dickman, 2015). Additional, this would offer opportunities to educate student nurse practitioners and increase the primary care workforce (Sutter-Barrett et al., 2015).

References

Maricopa County Department of Public Health. (2014). Maricopa County Community Health Assessment. Retrieved from http://www.maricopa.gov/4097/Community-Health-Assessment

Sutter-Barrett, R., Sutter-Dalrymple, C., & Dickman, K. (2015). Bridge care nurse-managed clinics fill the gap in health care. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 11(2), 262-265. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2014.11.012

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). Healthy People 2020: Leading health indicators. Retrieved from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives

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