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Public Administrations vs. Political Science

Public Administrations vs. Political Science

Introduction

Topics to be covered include:

· Public Administration Paradigms

· Public Administration Theories

· Importance of Paradigms and Theories

· Public Administrations vs. Political Science

· Political Science Objectives

As a field, public administration has struggled to find a scientific identity that has relevance and validity, unifying the study and practice of public administration. Over the years, public administration has been defined by various paradigms. In addition, it has been influenced by a variety of theories. This lesson will discuss the paradigms and the more prominent theories. In addition, public administration is closely tied to political science, and this has made it more difficult for the field to establish its identity. This lesson also will discuss public administration’s relationship with political science.

Public Administration Paradigms

Lesson 1 provided an overview of the history of public administration. Although Lesson 1 did not state this, that history covers the paradigms of public administration. A paradigm represents a model or example for how something should be approached and/or accomplished. Briefly, the paradigms pertaining to public administration include the following (Henry, 1975):

Politics-administration dichotomy-As explained in Lesson 1, the politics-administration dichotomy is a theoretical approach to government that argued it has two distinctly separate functions—politics and administration. This was the first paradigm for the field of public administration, covering the period from 1900 to 1926.

Principles of public administration-Between 1927 and 1937, public administration scholars emphasized the field’s administrative aspects and made efforts to find a science of administration that could guide how public administrators completed their work. This included attempts to adopt the principles of Frederick Taylor’s scientific management for use in public administration. These principles, which were originally used to guide management practices in private sector businesses, included the following (Taylor, 1987).

· Managers should standardize work processes.

· Managers should select qualified workers using scientific selection processes.

· Workers should do the work according to the scientific processes identified as the optimal way to complete the tasks.

· Managers and employees should divide the work equally and cooperate to achieve the organization’s objectives.

· Scientific management began as an innovative approach to business and was soon applied to government operations. It helped governments at all levels develop civil service systems for managing employees, including the establishment of position descriptions, the use of civil service exams for hiring staff, and the implementation of formal evaluations to review employees’ work.

Public administration as art- In 1938, scholars began questioning the logic of separating administration from politics. For example, as noted in Lesson 1, Simon (1947), argued that public administration had not achieved its goal of functioning in a scientific manner, and he suggested that given public administration’s relationship to politics, this was not possible. Others, such as Waldo (1948), described the work of public administration as both art and science.

Public administration as political science and management-Beginning in 1950, as advocates for acknowledging the political aspects of public administration gained prominence, one paradigm guiding the work of public administration posited to treat public administration as political science. At the same time, other scholars emphasized the administrative aspects of public administration and promoted another paradigm that recognized public administration as management. Until 1970, these two paradigms competed as the prevailing approach to guide how public administration should be practiced.

Public administration as public administration-In the 1960s, scholars advocated for public administration to stop seeking guidance from the private sector, political science, or any other field for the appropriate approach to study and practice public administration. Instead, scholars argued that public administrators should simply be public administrators. This approach began in 1970 and remains influential in the current study and practice of public administration. This includes the development of the New Public Management and the New Public Service, which will be discussed in Lessons 7 and 8.

Public Administration Theories

In addition to paradigms, the study and practice of public administration also are influenced by a variety of theories. Some of the more prominent public administration theories include the following (Frederickson & Smith, 2003):

Agency theory- Agency theory argues that public administrators have expertise and information, as well as an understanding of government processes, which politicians and other officials in government do not have. This gives public administrators an advantage, and they use this to manipulate politicians and other government officials for political gain. Agency theory also has applicability in the private sector to explain the relationship between the principals and agents in business dealings.

Client responsiveness theory- Client responsiveness theory is a theory of bureaucratic capture that applies primarily to local governments. Lipsky (1980) developed the theory, which includes the following concepts:

· Government resources are unceasingly insufficient. At the same time, the demand by citizens for government services will always be high, meeting the available supply of services, regardless of the supply level.

· Street-level bureaucrats , which refers to public administrators who work directly with citizens and government clients, have at least some degree of discretion in the way they provide government services.

· Under the condition of insufficient resources combined with high demand for limited services, public administrators are likely to ration services.

· As part of the rationing process, public administrators are likely to conserve personal resources that they put into their work, such as time and energy.

· To control clients who demand attention and the use of scarce resources, public administrators use their expertise and government symbols to create distance from their clients and maintain autonomy.

· Generally, street-level bureaucrats are middle class, and they provide government services, which may include rationing, based on middle-class values, such as respect for work and frugality.

· The goals and objectives for government agencies are often ambiguous, vague, or conflicting.

· Since the goals and objectives are not explicit, measurement of performance towards accomplishing them is difficult.

· Generally, government’s clients are non-voluntary. This limits their ability to be a reference group , which refers to a group that can be used as a standard for behavior and characteristics that can be evaluated for scientific purposes. This limits government’s ability to generate data that can be used to determine ways to improve government services.

· Capture theories argue that public administrators are under the control of the key players in the public policymaking process including interest groups, legislative bodies, and government regulators. The Iron Triangle , which was introduced in Lesson 4, is another example of a capture theory.

Postmodern public administration theory- Postmodern public administration theory refers to the postmodernist approach to public administration. The core ideas of postmodern public administration theorists include the following:

· Given the nature of their jobs, public administrators cannot be neutral or objective.

· Technology can dehumanize participants in government transactions.

· Government organizations and agencies tend to focus on goals displacement and survival.

· The best way to achieve effectiveness in government is through cooperation, consensus, and democratic administration.

· In the modern age, approaches to public administration should focus on making public administration more democratic as well as more responsive and adaptable to changes in society, the political environment, and the economy.

Rational choice theory- The rational choice theory applies neoclassical economic theory to government and politics. Argues that the actions of politicians, public administrators, and citizens are analogous to the actions of producers and consumers in the private marketplace. Assumes that each person is self-interested and seeks to maximize his or her benefits while minimizing losses in any situation. This includes considering all options in a situation, rationally calculating the pros and cons of each option, and rationally selecting the option that will yield the most benefit with the least harm.

Representative bureaucracy theory- Representative bureaucracy theory argues that if government organizations and agencies are staffed by a diverse group of public administrators who reflect the public they serve, they are more likely to enact public policies and provide government goods and services that appropriately serve the public interest. To achieve this, the group of public administrators working in a particular government agency should have the same general demographic makeup as the citizens they serve. Supporters of this theory argue that when a government agency is representative of the citizens it serves, this promotes democracy.

Theory X and Theory Y-Theory X and Theory Y is a human relations approach to management offered by Douglas McGregor in the late 1950s and 1960s. This approach was very influential in public sector management.

· According to McGregor, managers who follow Theory X believe the typical person dislikes work and tries to avoid it. As such, to motivate employees to work, a manager must coerce, control, and even threaten them. Under this theory, managers believe the typical employee shuns responsibility and has little ambition. Such people seek security in their jobs and must receive constant direction and motivation to keep them working.

· Theory Y managers have a different approach. According to McGregor, managers who follow Theory Y believe that most employees enjoy work, and they expend the effort needed to work with the same zeal that they expend effort to play and do other activities in their lives. Theory Y managers think that their employees are committed to the organization’s goals and will exercise self-direction and self-control to help achieve those goals. They do not have to be coerced or punished to motivate them to do their jobs. When employees are successful at work, their self-esteem and self-actualization needs are met, which is rewarding to them. Such employees will seek out more responsibility, and may even be creative and innovative in helping the organization solve problems and realize goals.

This information is not intended to be comprehensive. Rather, it serves to introduce you to some of the more prominent theories that have been posited to provide guidance for the study and practice of public administration. This information is also intended to ensure that as students, you understand that the field of public administration has been subjected to a variety of such theories, including some that conflict in their premises.

Importance of Paradigms and Theories

Studying paradigms and theories can help public administrators better understand government and the work they are expected to accomplish to achieve government’s goals and objectives.

Paradigms offer guidance for how to do things, providing a model to follow as government programs establish their goals and objectives and outline the work that should be done to achieve those goals and objectives. Paradigms provide the framework for which government programs and activities are based.

Theories help public administrators accomplish their work by providing understanding about the goals and objectives they seek to achieve. A theory refers to a set of ideas that is posited to bring order to facts, enabling the description and explanation of an event or a set of data. Theories also provide a mechanism for predicting the results or outcomes of certain occurrences.

According to Frederickson and Smith (2003), a useful theory has the following characteristics:

· It correctly describes or portrays an actual event or fact.

· Since descriptions and portrayals can be limited, it explains the event or fact.

· It enables the prediction of the results that will occur in response to an event or fact.

In public administration, the usefulness of a theory is important because public administrators need the ability to understand how government programs and activities will affect the citizens they serve and influence the public interest. When a theory is useful, it enables public administrators to organize facts and events and identify the data that is most important to their work. This helps them ensure that the programs and activities they implement are the most appropriate options to resolve issues and serve the public.

Public Administration vs. Political Science

As this course has noted several times, public administration and political science are closely related. To review, as explained in Lesson 1, public administration is both a profession as well as a field of study (Waldo, 1948). As a profession, public administration refers to the daily business of government, focused on using organization and management to implement and execute the laws, rules, and regulations passed by legislative bodies and other authoritative agents. As a field of study, public administration researches and reviews the processes through which the profession of public administration is involved in the creation and interpretation of laws, rules, and regulations.

Political science can be defined as the study of the theories and practices of government systems at all levels, including the evaluation of activities and behavior in the political arena, which includes activities such as political campaigns and elections. Generally, political science as a discipline has been divided into the following four subfields (Riemer, Simon, & Romance, 2011):

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

American government and politics study the United States’ system of governance.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

International relations studies how different countries and key components of the international system interact.

COMPARATIVE POLITICS

Comparative politics studies the political and governance processes in different countries through the world.

POLITICAL THEORY AND POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

Political theory and political philosophy study fundamental questions and philosophical issues regarding governance.

The discipline of political science has the following three major components (Riemer, Simon, & Romance, 2011):

ETHICAL

The ethical component focuses on political values to determine how government systems and politics should be handled. This component is based on philosophy.

EMPIRICAL

The empirical component focuses on political phenomena to determine what is happening, what has happened in the past, and, based on this information, what is expected to happen in the future. This component is based on science.

PRUDENTIAL

The prudential component focuses on political judgments to determine what is possible and can be in government and politics. This component is based on public policy.

Political Science Objectives

As a discipline, political science has the following four major tasks, or objectives (Riemer, Simon, & Romance, 2011):

ETHICAL RECOMMENDATIONS

Political scientists offer suggestions for how everyone involved in politics, including politicians and citizens, should behave in the political arena.

EMPIRICAL UNDERSTANDING

Political scientists provide information to help explain how those in the political arena accomplish their work. This includes explaining why they take certain actions.

PRUDENTIAL JUDGMENT

Political scientists provide guidance for how activities in the political arena should be carried out.

THEORETICAL INTEGRATION

Political scientists understand and explain how the three components of political science—ethical, empirical, and prudential—interrelate to provide a framework for political science.

COMPONENTS IN THEORETICAL INTEGRATION

With integration, each component answers the following questions (Riemer, Simon, & Romance 2011, p.71):

ETHICAL

· Political values – “Which political values should exist?”

· Political phenomena – “How should political actors behave?”

· Political judgment – “Which public policies should prevail?”

EMPIRICAL

· Political values – “Which values actually exist in the political community?”

· Political phenomena – “How do political actors actually behave?”

· Political judgment – “Which public policies actually exist?”

PRUDENTIAL

· Political values – “Which values can wisely exist in the political community?”

· Political phenomena – “How can political actors wisely behave?”

· Political judgment – “Which public policies can be formulated and sensibly implemented?”

This information is not intended to be a comprehensive discussion of political science. Its purpose is to provide you with an introduction to political science and help you understand how it differs from public administration. The primary difference between the two fields regards their purposes and methodologies. Political science focuses on the development of public policy and strategies in the political arena. Public administration focuses on the implementation of public policy and ensuring that this is accomplished in the most efficient and effective manner that appropriately serves the public interest. Political science and public administration complement each other, but they are two distinct fields of study and practice.

Conclusion

Throughout its history, public administration has been defined by various paradigms, which were discussed in this lesson. This lesson also introduced some of the theories that have influenced public administration. These theories represent only a small portion of the many theories used to help describe, explain, and predict public administration activities.

As stated in the introduction to this lesson, public administration has struggled to find a scientific identity that has relevance and validity, unifying the study and practice of public administration. This is important because such an identity can help public administrators understand how they should accomplish their work and also understand how government programs and activities will affect the citizens they serve and influence the public interest. Lesson 7 will introduce the New Public Management which, in recent years, has helped to address some of these concerns.

Public administration is closely tied to political science, which has made it more difficult for the field to establish its identity. Since the work of public administration complements the work of political science, the two fields will always have a relationship. But students, as well as practitioners, must understand that the two fields are distinct, with unique purposes, goals, and objectives.

References

Frederickson, H. G. (1997). The Spirit of Public Administration. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Frederickson, H. G., & Smith, K.B. (2003). The Public Administration Theory Primer. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Riemer, N., Simon, D.W., & Romance, J. (2011). The Challenge of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science, Third Edition. Washington D.C.: CQ Press.

Simon, H.A. (1947). Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-making Processes in Administrative Organization, Second Edition. New York: Macmillan.

Taylor, F. W. (1987). “Scientific Management,” in Classics of Public Administration, Second Edition. 29-33. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Waldo, D. (1948). The Administrative State: A Study of the Political Theory of American Public Administration. New York: Ronald Press.

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Analyze 3 public administration issues

Analyze 3 public administration issues

Masters level forum

Referencing the article readings, analyze three public administration issues. Choose an issue, identify the stakeholders, gather the facts, find additional analysis from several perspectives (conservative, liberal, etc.), address any underlying theories or other context (social/political/historical), then identify the next set of action steps you predict will be taken by the agency/government/administrator.

3 citations

500 word minimum

lesson attached

Due thursday 9pm

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Song Analysis formatting sample

Song Analysis formatting sample

Puttin’ on the Ritz – Irving Berlin

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GKPMk5_gStk?feature=oembed&w=1200&h=675]

Time Stamp

Formal part

Lyrics

Descriptions

0:00

Introduction

(INSTRUMENTAL)

Starts loud gets soft

0:14

Verse

part 1

Have you see the well to do up and down Park Avenue On that famous thoroughfare, with their noses in the air.

Soft drum beat and trumpets in the background

0:25

part 2

High hats and arrow collars, White spats and lots of dollars, Spending every dime for a wonderful time

Continues the feel of the verse

0:36

Refrain 1

A

If you’re blue and you don’t where to go to why don’t you go where fashion sits? Puttin’ on the Ritz

Repeated ascending melody ends with the name of the song

0:47

A

Different types who wear a day coat Pants with stripes and cut-a-way coats, Perfect fits, Puttin’ on the Ritz.

Same as the previous section

0:58

B

Dressed up like a million-dollar trooper. Trying hard to look like Gary Cooper Super-duper

Bridge goes higher than the previous melody is more flowing and less syncopated

1:09

A

Come let’s mix where Rockefeller walk with sticks and umbrellas in their mitts, Puttin on the Ritz.

Same as the previous A sections

1:20

Refrain 2

A

(INSTRUMENTAL)

Trumpets take the melody with a response from the saxophones at the end of the phrase

1:31

A

(INSTRUMENTAL)

Exact repeat of the previous phrase

1:42

B

Tips his hat just like and English Chappy to a lady with a wealthy pappy, very snappy

Same bridge as before with different lyrics

1:54

A

You’ll declare it’s simply topping to be there and hear them swapping smart tidbits, Puttin on the Ritz

Return of ascending melody with new words. Ends with a final statement of the name of the song.

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Music Assignment

Music Assignment

Part 1 (1-2 pages)

Provide a historical perspective of your chosen song. Your perspective must be thoroughly researched and must cover the following points. Because and be sure that you are writing about the correct version of the song from the list provided.

Who wrote this song?

Who recorded this song?

Who are the members of any ensemble?

Who’s singing, who’s the band leader, who plays what instrument?

What record company or publishing company was this written for?

What genre of music is this song and what makes it fall into that genre?

When was this song written, published and recorded?

Why was this song written?

Was it a part of something or just a single?

How popular was this song, any appearance on any charts? Sales figures?

Are there other versions of this song? Covers?

Your interpretation of what the song is about (if there are lyrics)

Any other interesting facts that you come across

This part is to be researched and must include all relevant citations and a separate bibliography in an MLA format. (the bibliography does not apply towards the overall page count) This should be written in a narrative form and not as bullet points.

Part 1 should be double spaced using 1 inch margins with no headers. Your paper must be uploaded to blackboard as a .doc format.

Part 2

Provide a timestamped analysis of the chosen song. This must include:

Song flow with timestamps at each formal part of the song

Must include large formal sections and small formal sections

Verse, Refrain AND AABA or ABAC

For 12 bar songs: provide chorus numbers and which phrase (first, middle, or last) of the 12 bar

A one sentence description of the song at each formal part

The lyrics to each formal part (if applicable)

This may be done as in the example provided in a table. This does not need to be a narrative. Timestamps must be within 1 second, be sure you use the exact recordings provided in the Spotify playlist.

Song Analysis formatting example in the attachment

Chose only one song from this playlist ! Be sure if you are listening to them from another place that it is that same song and same artist. I prefer you listen to them from Spotify.

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Security Architecture and Design Threat Modeling Session via

Security Architecture and Design Threat Modeling Session via

“Processing Threats”

Agenda

• When to find threats

• Playing chess

• How to approach software

• Tracking threats and assumptions

• Customer/vendor

• The API threat model

• Reading: Chapter 7

When to Find Threats

• Start at the beginning of your project

– Create a model of what you’re building

– Do a first pass for threats

• Dig deep as you work through features

– Think about how threats apply to your mitigations

• Check your design & model matches as you get close to shipping

Attackers Respond to Your Defenses

Playing Chess

• The ideal attacker will follow the road you defend

– Ideal attackers are like spherical cows — they’re a useful model for some things

• Real attackers will go around your defenses

• Your defenses need to be broad and deep

“Orders of Mitigation”

Order Threat Mitigation

1st Window smashing Reinforced glass

2nd Window smashing Alarm

3rd Cut alarm wire Heartbeat signal

4th Fake heartbeat Cryptographic signal integrity

By Example:

• Thus window smashing is a first order threat, cutting alarm wire, a third-order threat

• Easy to get stuck arguing about orders • Are both stronger glass & alarms 1st order

mitigations? (Who cares?!) • Focus on the concept of interplay between

mitigations & further attacks

How to Approach Software

• Depth first – The most fun and “instinctual”

– Keep following threats to see where they go

– Can be useful skill development, promoting “flow”

• Breadth first – The most conservative use of time

• Best when time is limited

– Most likely to result in good coverage

Tracking Threats and Assumptions

• There are an infinite number of ways to structure this

• Use the one that works reliably for you

• (Hope doesn’t work reliably)

Example Threat Tracking Tables

Diagram Element Threat Type Threat Bug ID

Data flow #4, web server to business logic

Tampering Add orders without payment checks

4553 “Need integrity controls on channel”

Info disclosure Payment instruments sent in clear

4554 “need crypto” #PCI

Threat Type Diagram Element(s) Threat Bug ID

Tampering Web browser Attacker modifies our JavaScript order checking

4556 “Add order- checking logic to server”

Data flow #2 from browser to server

Failure to authenticate

4557 “Add enforce HTTPS everywhere”

Both are fine, help you iterate over diagrams in different ways

Example Assumption Tracking

Assumption Impact if it’s wrong

Who to talk to

Who’s following up

Follow-up by date

Bug #

It’s ok to ignore denial of service within the data center

Availability will be below spec

Alice Bob April 15 4555

• Impact is sometimes so obvious it’s not worth filling out • Who to talk to is not always obvious, it’s ok to start out blank • Tracking assumptions in bugs helps you not lose track

• Treat the assumption as a bug – you need to resolve it

The Customer/Vendor Boundary

• There is always a trust boundary when:

– Your code goes to someone else’s (device/premises)

– Their data comes to your code

• All about human trust issues

• You need to think about it while deciding what happens over the data flow shown

Your software

Customer device

Your software

Your data center

Generic API Threat Model

• Perform security checks inside the boundary

• Copy before validation for purpose – Is http://evil.org/pwnme.html “valid”?

• Define the purpose for data, validate near that definition

• Manage error reporting

• Document what checks happen where

• Do crypto in constant time

• Address the security requirements for your API

Recap

• When to find threats

• Playing chess

• How to approach software

• Tracking threats and assumptions

• Customer/vendor

• The API threat model

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Processing And Managing Threats

Processing And Managing Threats

prepare a 2 pages paper.

Discuss the following:

  1. The tools and techniques that you can use to manage a threat modeling project.

Your responses must be complete, detailed and in APA format

                                               &

write 1 page

Discuss at least one approach for managing software API threats.

content file attached below

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Academic Argumentative Research task Pro Choice (correction)

Academic Argumentative Research task Pro Choice (correction)

Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to complete your academic argumentative research paper.

Description: In this assignment, you will first write your conclusion; then, you will write your abstract. The following components are requirements of the assignment:

Conclusion (150-200 words):

Revisit the controversy.

Emphasize the seriousness of the controversy.

Answer the “So what?” question.

Suggest a general solution (optional).

Call for awareness/action.

Leave the reader with a final thought.

Abstract (200 words or less): For this assignment, you may not exceed 200 words.

Restatement of the controversy (one to two sentences)

Your thesis (one sentence)

Reasons (three to four sentences)

Conclusion sentence (one sentence)

Add the conclusion and abstract to the rest of your paper so that you are turning in a complete research paper. The paper should include all of the following components (in order):

Title page

Abstract

Introduction

Literature review

Body paragraphs

Conclusion

References page

You may also seek out the guidance of the Success Center; the specialists are always there to assist you with your writing and comprehension.

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Analyze the potential for benchmarking of energy conserving

Analyze the potential for benchmarking of energy conserving

The project proposal is the first deliverable of the Module Project. For this week, choose one of the two organisations, Yundai Forging or Motkamills, and provide reasoning for selecting the particular organisation as it relates to managing energy.

Be sure to incorporate the topics below in your proposed project proposal:

• Identify background information of why you chose the particular organisation as it relates to your understanding of managing energy sources

• Recommend an energy monitoring programme for all facilities within the selected organisation

• Evaluate the potential for benchmarking of energy conserving measures in the respective organisation that might be relevant

• Provide references to similar companies within a similar geographic location for reference

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Analyze the potential for benchmarking of energy conserving measures in the respective organisation that might be relevant

Analyze the potential for benchmarking of energy conserving measures in the respective organisation that might be relevant

Managerial Economics
The project proposal is the first deliverable of the Module Project. For this week, choose one of the two organisations, Yundai Forging or Motkamills, and provide reasoning for selecting the particular organisation as it relates to managing energy.

Be sure to incorporate the topics below in your proposed project proposal:

• Identify background information of why you chose the particular organisation as it relates to your understanding of managing energy sources

• Recommend an energy monitoring programme for all facilities within the selected organisation

• Evaluate the potential for benchmarking of energy conserving measures in the respective organisation that might be relevant

• Provide references to similar companies within a similar geographic location for reference

Answered:-

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