# Blog

## Prepare a direct materials purchases budget for drums for the months of January and February

Prepare a direct materials purchases budget for drums for the months of January and February
3. Calculate the ending inventory of drums for December of the prior year, and for January and February. Round your answers to the nearest whole drum.

Ending inventory for December: _________________ drums

Ending inventory for January: _________________ drums

Ending inventory for February: _________________ drums

4. Prepare a direct materials purchases budget for drums for the months of January and February. Round Drums per unit to one decimal place. Round Price per drum to the nearest cent. Round Dollar purchases to the nearest dollar. Round all the other values to the nearest whole unit. Do not include a multiplication symbol as part of your answer.

Patrick Inc.

Direct Materials Purchases Budget – Drums

For the Months of January and February

January

February

Production in units

Drums per unit

Drums for production

Desired ending inventory

Needed

Less: Beginning inventory

Direct materials to be purchased

Price per drum

\$

\$

Dollar purchases

\$

\$

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

4.

eBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBook VideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideo

Cornerstone Exercise 9-24 (Algorithmic)
Preparing a Direct Labor Budget

Patrick Inc. makes industrial solvents. Planned production in units for the first three months of the coming year is:

January

40,000

February

55,000

March

60,000

Each drum of industrial solvent takes 0.3 direct labor hours. The average wage is \$17.10 per hour.

Prepare a direct labor budget for the months of January, February, and March, as well as the total for the first quarter. Do not include a multiplication symbol as part of your answer.

Patrick Inc.

Direct Labor Budget

For the Coming First Quarter

Direct Labor Budget:

January

February

March

Total

Units to be produced

Direct labor hrs per unit

Total direct labor hrs

Wage rate

\$

\$

\$

\$

Direct labor cost

\$

\$

\$

\$

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

5.

eBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBook

Exercise 9-35
Production Budget

Stillwater Designs produces two automotive subwoofers: S12L7 and S12L5. Projected sales (number of speakers) for the coming five quarters are as follows:

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/ilrn/books/mhma04h/images/ch09/mhma04h_ch09_ce9-34.e.jpg

The vice president of sales believes that the projected sales are realistic and can be achieved by the company.

Stillwater Designs needs a production budget for each product (representing the amount that must be outsourced to manufacturers located in Asia). Beginning inventory of S12L7 for the first quarter of 2012 was 340 boxes. The company’s policy is to have 20 percent of the next quarter’s sales of S12L7 in ending inventory. Beginning inventory of S12L5 was 170 boxes. The company’s policy is to have 30 percent of the next quarter’s sales of S12L5 in ending inventory.

Prepare a production budget for S12L7 for each quarter for 2012 and for the year in total.

Stillwater Designs

Production Budget for S12L7

For the Year Ended December 31, 2012

1st Qtr.

2nd Qtr.

3rd Qtr.

4th Qtr.

Total

Sales

Desired ending inventory

Total needs

Less: Beginning inventory

Units produced

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

Prepare a production budget for S12L5 for each quarter for 2012 and for the year in total.

Stillwater Designs

Production Budget for S12L5

For the Year Ended December 31, 2012

1st Qtr.

2nd Qtr.

3rd Qtr.

4th Qtr.

Total

Sales

Desired ending inventory

Total needs

Less: Beginning inventory

Units produced

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

The post Prepare a direct materials purchases budget for drums for the months of January and February appeared first on superioressaypapers.

## Calculate the ending inventory of drums for December of the prior year, and for January and February.

Calculate the ending inventory of drums for December of the prior year, and for January and February.

Ending inventory for December: _________________ drums

Ending inventory for January: _________________ drums

Ending inventory for February: _________________ drums

4. Prepare a direct materials purchases budget for drums for the months of January and February. Round Drums per unit to one decimal place. Round Price per drum to the nearest cent. Round Dollar purchases to the nearest dollar. Round all the other values to the nearest whole unit. Do not include a multiplication symbol as part of your answer.

Patrick Inc.

Direct Materials Purchases Budget – Drums

For the Months of January and February

January

February

Production in units

Drums per unit

Drums for production

Desired ending inventory

Needed

Less: Beginning inventory

Direct materials to be purchased

Price per drum

\$

\$

Dollar purchases

\$

\$

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

4.

eBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBook VideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideoVideo

Cornerstone Exercise 9-24 (Algorithmic)
Preparing a Direct Labor Budget

Patrick Inc. makes industrial solvents. Planned production in units for the first three months of the coming year is:

January

40,000

February

55,000

March

60,000

Each drum of industrial solvent takes 0.3 direct labor hours. The average wage is \$17.10 per hour.

Prepare a direct labor budget for the months of January, February, and March, as well as the total for the first quarter. Do not include a multiplication symbol as part of your answer.

Patrick Inc.

Direct Labor Budget

For the Coming First Quarter

Direct Labor Budget:

January

February

March

Total

Units to be produced

Direct labor hrs per unit

Total direct labor hrs

Wage rate

\$

\$

\$

\$

Direct labor cost

\$

\$

\$

\$

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

5.

eBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBookeBook

Exercise 9-35
Production Budget

Stillwater Designs produces two automotive subwoofers: S12L7 and S12L5. Projected sales (number of speakers) for the coming five quarters are as follows:

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/ilrn/books/mhma04h/images/ch09/mhma04h_ch09_ce9-34.e.jpg

The vice president of sales believes that the projected sales are realistic and can be achieved by the company.

Stillwater Designs needs a production budget for each product (representing the amount that must be outsourced to manufacturers located in Asia). Beginning inventory of S12L7 for the first quarter of 2012 was 340 boxes. The company’s policy is to have 20 percent of the next quarter’s sales of S12L7 in ending inventory. Beginning inventory of S12L5 was 170 boxes. The company’s policy is to have 30 percent of the next quarter’s sales of S12L5 in ending inventory.

Prepare a production budget for S12L7 for each quarter for 2012 and for the year in total.

Stillwater Designs

Production Budget for S12L7

For the Year Ended December 31, 2012

1st Qtr.

2nd Qtr.

3rd Qtr.

4th Qtr.

Total

Sales

Desired ending inventory

Total needs

Less: Beginning inventory

Units produced

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

Prepare a production budget for S12L5 for each quarter for 2012 and for the year in total.

Stillwater Designs

Production Budget for S12L5

For the Year Ended December 31, 2012

1st Qtr.

2nd Qtr.

3rd Qtr.

4th Qtr.

Total

Sales

Desired ending inventory

Total needs

Less: Beginning inventory

Units produced

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

6.

Exercise 9-36 (Algorithmic)
Production Budget and Direct Materials Purchases Budgets

Smee Inc. produces all-natural organic peanut butter. The peanut butter is sold in 12-ounce jars. The sales budget for the first four months of the year is as follows:

Unit Sales

Dollar Sales (\$)

January

60,000

\$114,000

February

70,000

133,000

March

80,000

152,000

April

50,000

95,000

Company policy requires that ending inventories for each month be 10 percent of next month’s sales. At the beginning of January, the inventory of peanut butter is 35,000 jars.

Each jar of peanut butter needs two raw materials: 24 ounces of peanuts and one jar. Company policy requires that ending inventories of raw materials for each month be 20 percent of the next month’s production needs. That policy was met on January 1.

1. Prepare a production budget for the first quarter of the year. Show the number of jars that should be produced each month as well as for the quarter in total.

Smee Inc.

Production Budget

For the First Quarter of the Year

January

February

March

Total

Sales

Desired ending inventory

Total needs

Less: Beginning inventory

Units produced

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

2a. Prepare a direct materials purchases budget for jars for the months of January and February. Do not include a multiplication symbol as part of your answer.

Smee, Inc.

Direct Materials Purchases Budget for Jars

For January and February

January

February

Total

Production

Jar

Jars for production

Desired ending inventory

Total needs

Less: Beginning inventory

Jars purchased

http://sjc.cengagenow.com/media/img/onepixel.gif

2b. Prepare a direct materials purchases budget for peanuts for the months of January and February. Do not include a multiplication symbol as part of your answer.

The post Calculate the ending inventory of drums for December of the prior year, and for January and February. appeared first on superioressaypapers.

## How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?

How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?

Sharing information also causes for a culture that is more positive and open because everyone is involved and has a sense of importance in the overall functionality of the organization from top to bottom. “If the structure doesn’t fit the information requirements of the organization, people either will have too little information or will spend time processing information that is not vital to their tasks, thus reducing effectiveness” (Daft, 2013, p. 96).” Efficiency is one of the goals of managers for the proper function of the organization so communicating with the employees who are in constant contact with customers and suppliers will create an environment of productivity and not unproductivity.

Chapter 1: What are some differences that one might anticipate among the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit business? Do you believe nonprofit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers?
One of the first differences that might be anticipated among the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit is in the management. “The primary difference is that managers in businesses direct their activities toward earning money for the company, whereas managers in nonprofits direct their efforts toward generating some kind of social impact (Daft, 2013, p. 13). Managers in nonprofit organizations have the challenge of not only attracting diversity with their stakeholders but they also require volunteers and donors in order to operate on a daily basis. Managers in for-profit organizations are focused on making profits for the organization without too much focus on the overall social impact.

I do believe that nonprofit managers need to pay more attention to stakeholders because of their social impact. For example, if a church is accepting donations from an organization like Planned Parenthood, this can cause for a problem for its volunteers seeing that there is a difference in belief with what the bible teaches and what Planned Parenthood supports.

Chapter 2: How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for innovation and change? How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for productivity?
A company’s goals for employee development are directly related to its goals for innovation and change. The innovation and change for the company cannot take place unless its employees are well training and advanced in multiple areas. This means that investing in the development of their employees will pose to be most beneficial to the entire company as a whole. When companies seek out new employees they are sure to ask about education, training, and experience because they want to be adding to their company and not taking away.

If the company has the most trained and developed employees the productivity also increases. “Remember that workforce training helps (1) workers adjust to changes in your industry, (2) employees respond successfully to customer needs while adjusting their performance to meet changing expectations, (3) reduce workforce accidents by ensuring that employees know how to react to high-risk situations, and (4) employees at all levels adapt to changes in technology” (Four Reasons to Have a Well-Trained Workforce , 2015). This will result in fewer mistakes which will result in cost savings and better productivity.

Chapter 2: Suppose you have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department in a medium-sized community. Where would you begin? How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a police department in a medium-sized community I would proceed to use the resource based approach which is a model that considers resources as the main key factor to superior firm performance. For a police department it may be difficult to measure performance since they are very much comprised of teams of specialized units so examining how they are currently using their resources will give a better picture then using one of the other approaches.

Chapter 3: What types of organizational activities do you believe are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely?
Some of the types of organizational activities that are most likely to be outsourced are manufacturing, technology, and consultants. In a small business, cutting costs help support the financial health of the business and outsourcing adds to savings. The top reasons for outsourcing are to (1) reduce and control operating costs, (2) improve company focus, (3) gain access to exceptional capabilities, (4) free internal resources for other purposes, (5) resources are not available internally, (6) maximize restructuring benefits, (7) function difficult to manage or out of control, (8) make capital funds available, and (9) reduce risk. At the same time, with outsourcing the business may lose control over how services are delivered which then causes more liability.

The types that are less likely to be outsourced are human resources, distribution and finance, and lawyers although the list is much broader than these. Retaining control over certain parts is necessary because they are too important to outsource. For example, if a business is facing a difficult situation and need legal representation face to face interactions would be the only way to go.

How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?

Christians are called to be the light in the world. This means we are to illuminate God’s spirit everywhere we go and God’s spirit evokes change for the betterment of mankind. Training and development are the same in relation to business. In a business, the job of management is to increase in all areas and that includes investing in their employees. This will give the business a huge advantage against competitors and help them to build a reputation as being the best in their field. In order to maintain such a reputation will require all members of the team to work together with clear expectations and goals through clear communication.

As Christians, we are to teach others how to live a life called by God by being His representatives on earth. “But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light (1 Peter 2:9). Such a task cannot be done without perseverance and dedication. One must build a relationship with God through prayer, reading of the word, dwelling in His presence, exercising His teachings in daily life so that the world will know you belong to Him. God has invested much into us by giving up His Son on our behalf and as ambassadors of the Most High we should be pleased to invest in others as He has in us.

References
Four Reasons to Have a Well-Trained Workforce . (2015). Retrieved from Tidewater Community College Center for Workforce Solutions: http://www.tccworkforce.org/blog-categories/223-four-reasons-to-have-a-well-trained-workforce

Daft, R. L. (2013). Organization Theory and Design. Mason: Cengage Learning.

The post How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer? appeared first on superioressaypapers.

## examining how they are currently using their resources will give a better picture then using one of the other approaches.

examining how they are currently using their resources will give a better picture then using one of the other approaches.

I need someone to complete these responses for me. They must be at least 400 words with at least 2 searchable refernces. Thank you!

1. Chapter 1: Why is shared information so important in a learning organization in comparison to an efficient performance organization? Discuss how an organization’s approach to sharing information may be related to other elements of organization design such as structure, tasks, strategy, and culture.

One can agree that sharing information across a company’s department is a very imperative tool for current and future success. Shared information is essential in a learning organization as compared to an efficient performance organization because sharing information endorses and encourages communications and partnership enabling people to be involved in ascertaining and solving various problems. This allows an organization to unceasingly advance and expand its capability. The three characteristics of a learning organization as follows:

“It develops both individual and collective knowledge;
It uses learning to improve performance and boost competitive advantage; and
It continuously enhances its capacity, through reflexive praxis, to adapt to its external environment. “(Lyle, E. R. 2012)
Furthermore, within the learning organization, shared information keeps the organization operational at an ideal level, instead of using the information to take hold of the employees; a fundamental part of the manager’s day-to-day operations is to find efficient and effective ways to open up channels of communication so that ideas can flow in every direction. Shared information maintains open lines of communication with customers, suppliers and at times even competitors to enhance the structure, learning, culture and strategy capabilities. There’s a correlation between information sharing and structure; during 1776 in the time of Adam Smith, organization information was only kept between top executives and the design of the organizations were very vertical. The hierarchy provided the mechanism for total supervision and control, the strategy was constructed by the top management and executed on the organization. Over time, most organizations have gone away of the traditional vertical structures and implemented horizontal structures such as the learning organization. The new structures dispersed the boundaries between top management and the workers.

Then, new and update structures changed the task performances from monotonous tasks to empowered roles. For the task were broken into specialized separate parts as a machine, and now a task is assigned to one worker. This also allowed for the empowered employees to have the strategy change in such a way that employees are now in with identifying needs and finding solutions, thus participating in the strategy making. Furthermore, the new collaboration strategy has changed the culture in which organizations do business from the old rigid culture into a more adaptive culture. Contrarily, in an efficient performance organization, there is no need for sharing information for the flow of production is linear. A great example of an efficient performance organization is a manufacturing company, where parts are made in order and each department is different from the other.

Chapter 1: What are some differences that one might anticipate the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit business? Do you believe nonprofit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers?

One of the key differences between non-profit organizations and for-profit businesses is that for-profit organizations use more factors for production labor to maximize profit. Such factors include capital, land, and technology intensive. Non-profit organizations totally depend on goodwill donations from public, private sectors, citizens, and government entities. Most for –profit financial activities are contingent upon marketing strategies and profit on the sale of goods and services (Daft, 2013). Other differences that one may anticipate in regards to stakeholders for nonprofit and for-profit organizations as opposed to for-profit organizations is as following; stakeholders in for-profit organizations are more engrossed on the level in which their products appeal to consumers and in what ways does it maximize profits.

Non-profit organizations focus their attention toward volunteering individuals and communities for donations. In addition, for-profit has great prospects on profit margin where they expect the business to have more profits than expenses, whereas non-profit organizations are more focused on how the organization can bring about change in the life of an individual or a community (Daft,2013). Though non-profit and for-profit organization stakeholders have different interest, they both have the responsibility to conduct their job to better the company and the stakeholder’s interest. Business managers represent the stakeholders and are entrusted to bring about profit and revenue toward the business, whereas non-profit managers rely on the stakeholders to raise funds in order to run the day-to-day operations of the organization, thus, I believe that non-profit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers.

Chapter 2: How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for innovation and change? How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for productivity? Explain the ways that these types of goals may conflict in an organization?

Overall, employee development may be looked at as a requirement for innovation or productivity. Goals for innovation and change may stimulate different approaches by different employees, leading to conflict. Correspondingly, execution for productivity may be approached so differently by different employees that it would lead to conflict. Such conflict, if in the form of constructive disagreement, can be healthy for determination of the best path.

Some goals may initially cause a decrease in profit and employee development can be costly. Richard Daft mentioned that employee development, goals for innovation and change are all operational goals; and at times, they are related. If a company is in need of an enthusiastic staff that’s passionate about providing excellent customer service, thus, the company bust invests a lot of time and money in its employee development. In regards to productivity, employee development will speed up the process and at times reduce production cost and improve service times and many other vital aspects of customer service.

Moreover, successful companies became successful by having a clear and concise vision, it is very important for one to understand and follow what God States “without a vision the people perish, and if the blind lead the blind they will both fall into the ditch” (KJVB”. If the top management heads have different goals than what their employees have, the organization will have conflicting views. There needs to be a balance between enlargement and keeping the process at hand.

Chapter 2: Suppose you have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department in a medium-sized community. Where would you begin? How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?

One can agree that it is very difficult to use the goal approach or system resource approach alone. One way to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department would be to follow a procedure to identify indicator goals, system resources, and internal process indicators. The measures can then be formulated into a combined approach to testing the effectiveness of the medium-sized community.

Chapter 3: What types of organizational activities do you believe are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely? How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?

Outsourcing is best described as a way to contract certain tasks or functions, such as manufacturing, human resources, or credit processing, to other companies” (Daft R., 2013). Outsourcing is a way fro companies to save money and cut back on expenses and they can also increase their output by providing services in different areas in which they were not able to provide before. Types of organizational activities that are likely to be outsourced include sanitization and janitorial duties and even food services. Also, marketing, IT, accounting and public relations can also be outsourced depending on the size of the company. Human resources are least likely to be outsourced because other than profit, it is one of the most important part of a company. Their main mission is to support the employees and keep the CEO, COO out of harms way.

A biblical worldview can be applied to reflect the culture and the nature in which one wants to run the company, manage employees, and donate. Romans 10:14 states, “How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher (KJV)?” Philippians 2:14-15 states “Do all things without grumbling or questioning, that you may be blameless and innocent, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and twisted generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world”.

References:

Baker, H. E., & Paulson, S. K. (2007). Experiential exercises in organization theory & design. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.

Daft, R. (2013). Organization theory & design (11th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781111221294.

Lyle, E. R. (2012). LEARNING ORGANISATION AL] LEARNING: International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(6) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/924460837?accountid=12085rticl

The King James Bible

2. Chapter 1: Why is shared information so important in a learning organization in comparison to an efficient performance organization? Discuss how an organization’s approach to sharing information may be related to other elements of organization design such as: structure, tasks, strategy, and culture.

Within learning organizations sharing information is a significant component because without this very important tool progression can be hindered or stalled. An efficient performance strategy is fashioned by upper managers and imposed on the organization. Employees have a very essential role and without being able to share information the aspect of teamwork becomes more difficult to obtain. The end results will be delays in work and service.

Sharing information also causes for a culture that is more positive and open because everyone is involved and has a sense of importance in the overall functionality of the organization from top to bottom. “If the structure doesn’t fit the information requirements of the organization, people either will have too little information or will spend time processing information that is not vital to their tasks, thus reducing effectiveness” (Daft, 2013, p. 96).” Efficiency is one of the goals of managers for the proper function of the organization so communicating with the employees who are in constant contact with customers and suppliers will create an environment of productivity and not unproductivity.

Chapter 1: What are some differences that one might anticipate among the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit business? Do you believe nonprofit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers?
One of the first differences that might be anticipated among the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit is in the management. “The primary difference is that managers in businesses direct their activities toward earning money for the company, whereas managers in nonprofits direct their efforts toward generating some kind of social impact (Daft, 2013, p. 13). Managers in nonprofit organizations have the challenge of not only attracting diversity with their stakeholders but they also require volunteers and donors in order to operate on a daily basis. Managers in for-profit organizations are focused on making profits for the organization without too much focus on the overall social impact.

I do believe that nonprofit managers need to pay more attention to stakeholders because of their social impact. For example, if a church is accepting donations from an organization like Planned Parenthood, this can cause for a problem for its volunteers seeing that there is a difference in belief with what the bible teaches and what Planned Parenthood supports.

Chapter 2: How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for innovation and change? How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for productivity?
A company’s goals for employee development are directly related to its goals for innovation and change. The innovation and change for the company cannot take place unless its employees are well training and advanced in multiple areas. This means that investing in the development of their employees will pose to be most beneficial to the entire company as a whole. When companies seek out new employees they are sure to ask about education, training, and experience because they want to be adding to their company and not taking away.

If the company has the most trained and developed employees the productivity also increases. “Remember that workforce training helps (1) workers adjust to changes in your industry, (2) employees respond successfully to customer needs while adjusting their performance to meet changing expectations, (3) reduce workforce accidents by ensuring that employees know how to react to high-risk situations, and (4) employees at all levels adapt to changes in technology” (Four Reasons to Have a Well-Trained Workforce , 2015). This will result in fewer mistakes which will result in cost savings and better productivity.

Chapter 2: Suppose you have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department in a medium-sized community. Where would you begin? How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a police department in a medium-sized community I would proceed to use the resource based approach which is a model that considers resources as the main key factor to superior firm performance. For a police department it may be difficult to measure performance since they are very much comprised of teams of specialized units so examining how they are currently using their resources will give a better picture then using one of the other approaches.

Chapter 3: What types of organizational activities do you believe are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely?
Some of the types of organizational activities that are most likely to be outsourced are manufacturing, technology, and consultants. In a small business, cutting costs help support the financial health of the business and outsourcing adds to savings. The top reasons for outsourcing are to (1) reduce and control operating costs, (2) improve company focus, (3) gain access to exceptional capabilities, (4) free internal resources for other purposes, (5) resources are not available internally, (6) maximize restructuring benefits, (7) function difficult to manage or out of control, (8) make capital funds available, and (9) reduce risk. At the same time, with outsourcing the business may lose control over how services are delivered which then causes more liability.

The types that are less likely to be outsourced are human resources, distribution and finance, and lawyers although the list is much broader than these. Retaining control over certain parts is necessary because they are too important to outsource. For example, if a business is facing a difficult situation and need legal representation face to face interactions would be the only way to go.

How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?

Christians are called to be the light in the world. This means we are to illuminate God’s spirit everywhere we go and God’s spirit evokes change for the betterment of mankind. Training and development are the same in relation to business. In a business, the job of management is to increase in all areas and that includes investing in their employees. This will give the business a huge advantage against competitors and help them to build a reputation as being the best in their field. In order to maintain such a reputation will require all members of the team to work together with clear expectations and goals through clear communication.

As Christians, we are to teach others how to live a life called by God by being His representatives on earth. “But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light (1 Peter 2:9). Such a task cannot be done without perseverance and dedication. One must build a relationship with God through prayer, reading of the word, dwelling in His presence, exercising His teachings in daily life so that the world will know you belong to Him. God has invested much into us by giving up His Son on our behalf and as ambassadors of the Most High we should be pleased to invest in others as He has in us.

References
Four Reasons to Have a Well-Trained Workforce . (2015). Retrieved from Tidewater Community College Center for Workforce Solutions: http://www.tccworkforce.org/blog-categories/223-four-reasons-to-have-a-well-trained-workforce

Daft, R. L. (2013). Organization Theory and Design. Mason: Cengage Learning.

The post examining how they are currently using their resources will give a better picture then using one of the other approaches. appeared first on superioressaypapers.

## What types of organizational activities do you believe are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely?

What types of organizational activities do you believe are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely?

1. Chapter 1: Why is shared information so important in a learning organization in comparison to an efficient performance organization? Discuss how an organization’s approach to sharing information may be related to other elements of organization design such as structure, tasks, strategy, and culture.

One can agree that sharing information across a company’s department is a very imperative tool for current and future success. Shared information is essential in a learning organization as compared to an efficient performance organization because sharing information endorses and encourages communications and partnership enabling people to be involved in ascertaining and solving various problems. This allows an organization to unceasingly advance and expand its capability. The three characteristics of a learning organization as follows:

“It develops both individual and collective knowledge;
It uses learning to improve performance and boost competitive advantage; and
It continuously enhances its capacity, through reflexive praxis, to adapt to its external environment. “(Lyle, E. R. 2012)
Furthermore, within the learning organization, shared information keeps the organization operational at an ideal level, instead of using the information to take hold of the employees; a fundamental part of the manager’s day-to-day operations is to find efficient and effective ways to open up channels of communication so that ideas can flow in every direction. Shared information maintains open lines of communication with customers, suppliers and at times even competitors to enhance the structure, learning, culture and strategy capabilities. There’s a correlation between information sharing and structure; during 1776 in the time of Adam Smith, organization information was only kept between top executives and the design of the organizations were very vertical. The hierarchy provided the mechanism for total supervision and control, the strategy was constructed by the top management and executed on the organization. Over time, most organizations have gone away of the traditional vertical structures and implemented horizontal structures such as the learning organization. The new structures dispersed the boundaries between top management and the workers.

Then, new and update structures changed the task performances from monotonous tasks to empowered roles. For the task were broken into specialized separate parts as a machine, and now a task is assigned to one worker. This also allowed for the empowered employees to have the strategy change in such a way that employees are now in with identifying needs and finding solutions, thus participating in the strategy making. Furthermore, the new collaboration strategy has changed the culture in which organizations do business from the old rigid culture into a more adaptive culture. Contrarily, in an efficient performance organization, there is no need for sharing information for the flow of production is linear. A great example of an efficient performance organization is a manufacturing company, where parts are made in order and each department is different from the other.

Chapter 1: What are some differences that one might anticipate the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit business? Do you believe nonprofit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers?

One of the key differences between non-profit organizations and for-profit businesses is that for-profit organizations use more factors for production labor to maximize profit. Such factors include capital, land, and technology intensive. Non-profit organizations totally depend on goodwill donations from public, private sectors, citizens, and government entities. Most for –profit financial activities are contingent upon marketing strategies and profit on the sale of goods and services (Daft, 2013). Other differences that one may anticipate in regards to stakeholders for nonprofit and for-profit organizations as opposed to for-profit organizations is as following; stakeholders in for-profit organizations are more engrossed on the level in which their products appeal to consumers and in what ways does it maximize profits.

Non-profit organizations focus their attention toward volunteering individuals and communities for donations. In addition, for-profit has great prospects on profit margin where they expect the business to have more profits than expenses, whereas non-profit organizations are more focused on how the organization can bring about change in the life of an individual or a community (Daft,2013). Though non-profit and for-profit organization stakeholders have different interest, they both have the responsibility to conduct their job to better the company and the stakeholder’s interest. Business managers represent the stakeholders and are entrusted to bring about profit and revenue toward the business, whereas non-profit managers rely on the stakeholders to raise funds in order to run the day-to-day operations of the organization, thus, I believe that non-profit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers.

Chapter 2: How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for innovation and change? How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for productivity? Explain the ways that these types of goals may conflict in an organization?

Overall, employee development may be looked at as a requirement for innovation or productivity. Goals for innovation and change may stimulate different approaches by different employees, leading to conflict. Correspondingly, execution for productivity may be approached so differently by different employees that it would lead to conflict. Such conflict, if in the form of constructive disagreement, can be healthy for determination of the best path.

Some goals may initially cause a decrease in profit and employee development can be costly. Richard Daft mentioned that employee development, goals for innovation and change are all operational goals; and at times, they are related. If a company is in need of an enthusiastic staff that’s passionate about providing excellent customer service, thus, the company bust invests a lot of time and money in its employee development. In regards to productivity, employee development will speed up the process and at times reduce production cost and improve service times and many other vital aspects of customer service.

Moreover, successful companies became successful by having a clear and concise vision, it is very important for one to understand and follow what God States “without a vision the people perish, and if the blind lead the blind they will both fall into the ditch” (KJVB”. If the top management heads have different goals than what their employees have, the organization will have conflicting views. There needs to be a balance between enlargement and keeping the process at hand.

Chapter 2: Suppose you have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department in a medium-sized community. Where would you begin? How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?

One can agree that it is very difficult to use the goal approach or system resource approach alone. One way to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department would be to follow a procedure to identify indicator goals, system resources, and internal process indicators. The measures can then be formulated into a combined approach to testing the effectiveness of the medium-sized community.

Chapter 3: What types of organizational activities do you believe are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely? How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?

Outsourcing is best described as a way to contract certain tasks or functions, such as manufacturing, human resources, or credit processing, to other companies” (Daft R., 2013). Outsourcing is a way fro companies to save money and cut back on expenses and they can also increase their output by providing services in different areas in which they were not able to provide before. Types of organizational activities that are likely to be outsourced include sanitization and janitorial duties and even food services. Also, marketing, IT, accounting and public relations can also be outsourced depending on the size of the company. Human resources are least likely to be outsourced because other than profit, it is one of the most important part of a company. Their main mission is to support the employees and keep the CEO, COO out of harms way.

A biblical worldview can be applied to reflect the culture and the nature in which one wants to run the company, manage employees, and donate. Romans 10:14 states, “How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher (KJV)?” Philippians 2:14-15 states “Do all things without grumbling or questioning, that you may be blameless and innocent, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and twisted generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world”.

References:

Baker, H. E., & Paulson, S. K. (2007). Experiential exercises in organization theory & design. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.

Daft, R. (2013). Organization theory & design (11th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781111221294.

Lyle, E. R. (2012). LEARNING ORGANISATION AL] LEARNING: International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(6) Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/924460837?accountid=12085rticl

The King James Bible

2. Chapter 1: Why is shared information so important in a learning organization in comparison to an efficient performance organization? Discuss how an organization’s approach to sharing information may be related to other elements of organization design such as: structure, tasks, strategy, and culture.

Within learning organizations sharing information is a significant component because without this very important tool progression can be hindered or stalled. An efficient performance strategy is fashioned by upper managers and imposed on the organization. Employees have a very essential role and without being able to share information the aspect of teamwork becomes more difficult to obtain. The end results will be delays in work and service.

Sharing information also causes for a culture that is more positive and open because everyone is involved and has a sense of importance in the overall functionality of the organization from top to bottom. “If the structure doesn’t fit the information requirements of the organization, people either will have too little information or will spend time processing information that is not vital to their tasks, thus reducing effectiveness” (Daft, 2013, p. 96).” Efficiency is one of the goals of managers for the proper function of the organization so communicating with the employees who are in constant contact with customers and suppliers will create an environment of productivity and not unproductivity.

Chapter 1: What are some differences that one might anticipate among the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit business? Do you believe nonprofit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than business managers?
One of the first differences that might be anticipated among the expectations of stakeholder for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit is in the management. “The primary difference is that managers in businesses direct their activities toward earning money for the company, whereas managers in nonprofits direct their efforts toward generating some kind of social impact (Daft, 2013, p. 13). Managers in nonprofit organizations have the challenge of not only attracting diversity with their stakeholders but they also require volunteers and donors in order to operate on a daily basis. Managers in for-profit organizations are focused on making profits for the organization without too much focus on the overall social impact.

I do believe that nonprofit managers need to pay more attention to stakeholders because of their social impact. For example, if a church is accepting donations from an organization like Planned Parenthood, this can cause for a problem for its volunteers seeing that there is a difference in belief with what the bible teaches and what Planned Parenthood supports.

Chapter 2: How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for innovation and change? How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for productivity?
A company’s goals for employee development are directly related to its goals for innovation and change. The innovation and change for the company cannot take place unless its employees are well training and advanced in multiple areas. This means that investing in the development of their employees will pose to be most beneficial to the entire company as a whole. When companies seek out new employees they are sure to ask about education, training, and experience because they want to be adding to their company and not taking away.

If the company has the most trained and developed employees the productivity also increases. “Remember that workforce training helps (1) workers adjust to changes in your industry, (2) employees respond successfully to customer needs while adjusting their performance to meet changing expectations, (3) reduce workforce accidents by ensuring that employees know how to react to high-risk situations, and (4) employees at all levels adapt to changes in technology” (Four Reasons to Have a Well-Trained Workforce , 2015). This will result in fewer mistakes which will result in cost savings and better productivity.

Chapter 2: Suppose you have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department in a medium-sized community. Where would you begin? How would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a police department in a medium-sized community I would proceed to use the resource based approach which is a model that considers resources as the main key factor to superior firm performance. For a police department it may be difficult to measure performance since they are very much comprised of teams of specialized units so examining how they are currently using their resources will give a better picture then using one of the other approaches.

Chapter 3: What types of organizational activities do you believe are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely?
Some of the types of organizational activities that are most likely to be outsourced are manufacturing, technology, and consultants. In a small business, cutting costs help support the financial health of the business and outsourcing adds to savings. The top reasons for outsourcing are to (1) reduce and control operating costs, (2) improve company focus, (3) gain access to exceptional capabilities, (4) free internal resources for other purposes, (5) resources are not available internally, (6) maximize restructuring benefits, (7) function difficult to manage or out of control, (8) make capital funds available, and (9) reduce risk. At the same time, with outsourcing the business may lose control over how services are delivered which then causes more liability.

The types that are less likely to be outsourced are human resources, distribution and finance, and lawyers although the list is much broader than these. Retaining control over certain parts is necessary because they are too important to outsource. For example, if a business is facing a difficult situation and need legal representation face to face interactions would be the only way to go.

How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?

Christians are called to be the light in the world. This means we are to illuminate God’s spirit everywhere we go and God’s spirit evokes change for the betterment of mankind. Training and development are the same in relation to business. In a business, the job of management is to increase in all areas and that includes investing in their employees. This will give the business a huge advantage against competitors and help them to build a reputation as being the best in their field. In order to maintain such a reputation will require all members of the team to work together with clear expectations and goals through clear communication.

As Christians, we are to teach others how to live a life called by God by being His representatives on earth. “But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light (1 Peter 2:9). Such a task cannot be done without perseverance and dedication. One must build a relationship with God through prayer, reading of the word, dwelling in His presence, exercising His teachings in daily life so that the world will know you belong to Him. God has invested much into us by giving up His Son on our behalf and as ambassadors of the Most High we should be pleased to invest in others as He has in us.

References
Four Reasons to Have a Well-Trained Workforce . (2015). Retrieved from Tidewater Community College Center for Workforce Solutions: http://www.tccworkforce.org/blog-categories/223-four-reasons-to-have-a-well-trained-workforce

Daft, R. L. (2013). Organization Theory and Design. Mason: Cengage Learning.

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## Describe the organizational structure of the business.

Describe the organizational structure of the business.

In this 3-5-page paper, research the organization of your choice. This should be 3 pages minimum of content.

This paper should be a totally Original with NO other copies.

Format your papers according to APA.

Please reference the textbook (Daft, R. (2015). Management (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage) and at least two other scholarly sources.

In your research outline the following topic areas

Organizational Environment/Culture
What Environment does the organization compete in (see chapter 3)
Describe key components of the organizations culture
Describe the organization’s planning and strategy formulation process (see chapters 7 and 8)
What is the organization’s mission goals?
Discuss the strategy being employed by the organization. Which of Porter’s competitive strategies does it use? Justify your response.
Organizational Structure (chapter 10)

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## Discuss the strategy being employed by the organization. Which of Porter’s competitive strategies does it use?

Discuss the strategy being employed by the organization. Which of Porter’s competitive strategies does it use?

In this 3-5-page paper, research the organization of your choice. This should be 3 pages minimum of content.

This paper should be a totally Original with NO other copies.

Format your papers according to APA.

Please reference the textbook (Daft, R. (2015). Management (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage) and at least two other scholarly sources.

In your research outline the following topic areas

Organizational Environment/Culture
What Environment does the organization compete in (see chapter 3)
Describe key components of the organizations culture
Describe the organization’s planning and strategy formulation process (see chapters 7 and 8)
What is the organization’s mission goals?
Discuss the strategy being employed by the organization. Which of Porter’s competitive strategies does it use? Justify your response.
Organizational Structure (chapter 10)
Describe the organizational structure of the business.

The post Discuss the strategy being employed by the organization. Which of Porter’s competitive strategies does it use? appeared first on superioressaypapers.

## conducting evaluations, and placing individuals in jobs.

conducting evaluations, and placing individuals in jobs.

For this discussion, synthesize your understanding of career counseling as an integral part of human development. From the perspective of your specialization, how does the developmental lifespan perspective influence career and educational planning, placement, and evaluation? Discuss the influence of career counseling when working with children (elementary school), adolescents (secondary), and older adults. Identify models that would be appropriate for children and adolescents in the school setting, including identity models such as Erik Erickson.

Response Guidelines
Respond to at least two of your peers, commenting on the effectiveness with which your peer addressed each developmental stage, identifying the needs of elementary, secondary, and older adults. The response needs to include at least one reference

First peer posting

Career Counseling as an Integral Part of Human Development

Career development is not a one-time event, rather it is a process that occurs across the lifespan and is an integral part of human development. Further, the counseling that may be offered to support career development must also be offered from a lifespan perspective, with counselors supporting a client’s unique needs at the various stages of their life and career. Zunker (2016) also points out that changing cultural and environmental systems can effect human development, and best practice involves case conceptualization from a holistic perspective. Humans are actively growing and changing throughout their lives, and their vocational interests, goals, and preferences are no exception. Career counseling is a dynamic and lifelong process that evolves with each client throughout the course of their life.

The Developmental Lifespan Model Influence on Career and Educational Planning, Placement, and Evaluation

From a mental health counseling perspective, the developmental lifespan model of career planning is highly influential. Mental health counselors will need to be prepared to address all phases of career counseling in all phases or stages of a client’s life. Career and education planning begin in early childhood and continue throughout the course of life. Mental health counselors will need to be aware of the foundational career needs of the children they serve, and be prepared to focus on improved social skills, industry, and communication skills. When working with adolescents, mental health counselors also need to be aware of the importance of developing quality relationships outside of their family, and how these interpersonal skills will benefit them later in the workforce. Also, mental health counselors will need to understand life stages when selecting assessment tools, conducting evaluations, and placing individuals in jobs.

The Influence of Career Counseling When Working With Children, Adolescents, and Older Adults

Career counseling can easily be integrated into work with children by focusing on the foundational skills necessary for successful education, vocational, and social experiences. Some of the foundational skills that counselors can focus on with children include prosocial skills, positive work habits, diversity skills, pleasing personality traits, and entrepreneurship (Gysbers, 2013). Counseling work with adolescents can begin to focus on planning, goal setting, and decision making skills, along with a focus on curricula that supports a possible career direction. Interestingly, Newman and Newman (2012) highlight the concept of career maturity, which suggests postponing career decisions until an adolescent or young adult matures and gains valuable life experience. Career counseling with adults in the new workforce places more emphasis on career development than remaining at a particular company (Zunker, 2016). Retirement counseling should also be highlighted as individuals move to transition from the world of work to increased volunteer and leisure opportunities. Finally, more retired individuals are going back to work on a part time basis in order to supplement their retirement income, and may require counseling to make this change.

Appropriate Career Counseling Models for Children and Adolescents, Including Erik Erickson’s Model

Stage theorists such as Erik Erickson conceptualize career counseling from the developmental life stage that a particular client is navigating. Between the ages of 6 to 11, for example, children are actively learning a variety of social, academic, and work related skills that will create a foundation for later more complex career development. This stage of development is also associated with achievement of self-efficacy and an understanding of the importance of productivity. Adolescents are actively working on the developmental task of achieving a group and individual identity and avoiding isolation. Adolescents work hard to expand their social circles and distance themselves from their parents in an effort to achieve independence (Newman & Newman, 2012). An overarching principal associated with Erickson’s stage model is that children or adolescents who fail to successfully achieve their developmental tasks may require special supports later in life (Zunker, 2016). Career counseling from this stage model would consider this developmental information as the foundation from which to create a comprehensive career plan.

Other career counseling models appropriate for children and adolescents include Super’s self-concept theory, Krumboltz’s learning theory, and cognitive development theory. Because elementary school students are busy forming their identity or self-concept through their childhood relationships, Super’s self-concept theory may be applied (Zunker, 2016). Krumboltz’s learning theory looks at the way that children and adolescents utilize observation in learning new things, and are able to adapt their behavior based on this observational learning (Zunker, 2016). Piaget’s cognitive development theory is also a stage theory in that it views children’s knowledge acquisition as developing in specific steps or levels through their environmental engagement.

References

Gysbers, N. C. (2013). Career-ready students: A goal of comprehensive school counseling programs. Career Development Quarterly, 61(3), 283-288. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2013.00057.x

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2012). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Zunker, V. G. (2016). Career counseling: A holistic approach (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781305087286.

Second peer posting

Newman & Newman (2012) stated that career identities are “a well-integrated part of [people’s] personal identities rather than as activities from which they are alienated or by which they are dominated” (p. 412). Career counseling across the lifespan has implications in all fields of counseling practices. As it pertains to mental health counseling, career counseling becomes an integrated conversation about the wants, needs, & desires a person has to have a satisfied existence.

Developmental Lifespan from a MH Perspective

Zunker (2016) stated that early life experiences tend to influence later life decisions. As it applies to career counseling, this is the core and foundation for how young children begin to view the world and all it has to offer. For example, children who have parental figures who exhibit hard work ethic are likely to influence their young children especially if it is reinforced with at-home activities (e.g., chores). These experiences, along with other life experiences, are likely to shape what a child decides to do. From a MH perspective, because the child’s feelings about these practices greatly challenge or confirm their beliefs, it will affect their behaviors.

Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Model illustrates the challenges that people face at different stages of their life development. What made Erikson’s model much more appealing (versus Freud’s Psychosexual Theory) is that it included polarities that challenged each individual’s relationship to his/her culture, family, and life environment (Syed and McLean, 2015). So as it is applied to career counseling in the cases of young children and adolescents, Erikson’s developmental model provides a theoretical explanation for the decisions and choices one makes at certain times of his/her life.

Branje, Lieshout, & Gerris (2007) studied personality development across adolescence and adulthood to see if the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience) changed as individuals aged and gained experience. Their research suggested that males have fewer changes than females, but both sexes showed increasing signs of maturity and adaptation as they aged. The importance of their study was that it showed that personality continued to develop during the middle adulthood potentially because of the delegation of new responsibilities (i.e., parenthood). As it is applied to career counseling, the changing course of one’s career can have profound impact on their livelihood and decisions that (in)directly affect how one views his/her future.

Thoughts from the “Other Side”

Based upon Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs, there exist several, innate physiological needs during infancy: food, water, shelter, sleep, air (breathing), excretion, and sensory satisfaction (e.g., touch, taste, hear, feel, and smell; Daniels, 1992; Maslow, 1943; and Seeley, 1992). The early, formative years allow the child to experience the world through their parent’s permission. Fast forward to adulthood, and these same basic needs are still required; however, they have evolved into something much more complex. When integrated with the work life, it is not surprising that these same needs are still needed in the workplace environment; however, they are ascribed new titles or new entitlements. For example, infants have the need for food; employees have the need for a clean environment to enjoy said food. Another example: infants have a need for sleep; employees need an hour per day for a break to do with it whatever they would like. These needs have never left; they have just evolved. The career demands that one has available to him/her that are most desirable are the attributes the (s)he will seek. In these instances, it will be necessary to determine if a client is okay with where (s)he is at this junction of his/her life. If they are not, it will be important to determine how career counseling and lifespan developmental theory can be influential in assisting with producing changes.

Wm D. Stinchcomb

References

Branje, S.J.T., Van Lieshout, C.F.M., & Gerris, J.R.M. (2007). Big Five Personality Development in Adolescence and Adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 21, 45-67.

Daniels, J. (1992). Empowering homeless children through school counseling. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 27(2), 104-113.

Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2012).Development through life: a psychosocial approach (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Seeley, E. (1992). Human needs and consumer economics: The implications of Maslow’s theory of motivation for consumer expenditure patterns. Journal Of Socio-Economics, 21(4), 303.

Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2015). Understanding identity integration: Theoretical, methodological, and applied issues. Journal of Adolescence, 47, 109-118. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.09.005

Zunker, V. G. (2016). Career counseling: A holistic approach, 9th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781305729759/

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## Respond to at least two of your peers, commenting on the effectiveness with which your peer addressed each developmental stage

Respond to at least two of your peers, commenting on the effectiveness with which your peer addressed each developmental stage

For this discussion, synthesize your understanding of career counseling as an integral part of human development. From the perspective of your specialization, how does the developmental lifespan perspective influence career and educational planning, placement, and evaluation? Discuss the influence of career counseling when working with children (elementary school), adolescents (secondary), and older adults. Identify models that would be appropriate for children and adolescents in the school setting, including identity models such as Erik Erickson.

Response Guidelines
Respond to at least two of your peers, commenting on the effectiveness with which your peer addressed each developmental stage, identifying the needs of elementary, secondary, and older adults. The response needs to include at least one reference

First peer posting

Career Counseling as an Integral Part of Human Development

Career development is not a one-time event, rather it is a process that occurs across the lifespan and is an integral part of human development. Further, the counseling that may be offered to support career development must also be offered from a lifespan perspective, with counselors supporting a client’s unique needs at the various stages of their life and career. Zunker (2016) also points out that changing cultural and environmental systems can effect human development, and best practice involves case conceptualization from a holistic perspective. Humans are actively growing and changing throughout their lives, and their vocational interests, goals, and preferences are no exception. Career counseling is a dynamic and lifelong process that evolves with each client throughout the course of their life.

The Developmental Lifespan Model Influence on Career and Educational Planning, Placement, and Evaluation

From a mental health counseling perspective, the developmental lifespan model of career planning is highly influential. Mental health counselors will need to be prepared to address all phases of career counseling in all phases or stages of a client’s life. Career and education planning begin in early childhood and continue throughout the course of life. Mental health counselors will need to be aware of the foundational career needs of the children they serve, and be prepared to focus on improved social skills, industry, and communication skills. When working with adolescents, mental health counselors also need to be aware of the importance of developing quality relationships outside of their family, and how these interpersonal skills will benefit them later in the workforce. Also, mental health counselors will need to understand life stages when selecting assessment tools, conducting evaluations, and placing individuals in jobs.

The Influence of Career Counseling When Working With Children, Adolescents, and Older Adults

Career counseling can easily be integrated into work with children by focusing on the foundational skills necessary for successful education, vocational, and social experiences. Some of the foundational skills that counselors can focus on with children include prosocial skills, positive work habits, diversity skills, pleasing personality traits, and entrepreneurship (Gysbers, 2013). Counseling work with adolescents can begin to focus on planning, goal setting, and decision making skills, along with a focus on curricula that supports a possible career direction. Interestingly, Newman and Newman (2012) highlight the concept of career maturity, which suggests postponing career decisions until an adolescent or young adult matures and gains valuable life experience. Career counseling with adults in the new workforce places more emphasis on career development than remaining at a particular company (Zunker, 2016). Retirement counseling should also be highlighted as individuals move to transition from the world of work to increased volunteer and leisure opportunities. Finally, more retired individuals are going back to work on a part time basis in order to supplement their retirement income, and may require counseling to make this change.

Appropriate Career Counseling Models for Children and Adolescents, Including Erik Erickson’s Model

Stage theorists such as Erik Erickson conceptualize career counseling from the developmental life stage that a particular client is navigating. Between the ages of 6 to 11, for example, children are actively learning a variety of social, academic, and work related skills that will create a foundation for later more complex career development. This stage of development is also associated with achievement of self-efficacy and an understanding of the importance of productivity. Adolescents are actively working on the developmental task of achieving a group and individual identity and avoiding isolation. Adolescents work hard to expand their social circles and distance themselves from their parents in an effort to achieve independence (Newman & Newman, 2012). An overarching principal associated with Erickson’s stage model is that children or adolescents who fail to successfully achieve their developmental tasks may require special supports later in life (Zunker, 2016). Career counseling from this stage model would consider this developmental information as the foundation from which to create a comprehensive career plan.

Other career counseling models appropriate for children and adolescents include Super’s self-concept theory, Krumboltz’s learning theory, and cognitive development theory. Because elementary school students are busy forming their identity or self-concept through their childhood relationships, Super’s self-concept theory may be applied (Zunker, 2016). Krumboltz’s learning theory looks at the way that children and adolescents utilize observation in learning new things, and are able to adapt their behavior based on this observational learning (Zunker, 2016). Piaget’s cognitive development theory is also a stage theory in that it views children’s knowledge acquisition as developing in specific steps or levels through their environmental engagement.

References

Gysbers, N. C. (2013). Career-ready students: A goal of comprehensive school counseling programs. Career Development Quarterly, 61(3), 283-288. doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2013.00057.x

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2012). Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Zunker, V. G. (2016). Career counseling: A holistic approach (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781305087286.

Second peer posting

Newman & Newman (2012) stated that career identities are “a well-integrated part of [people’s] personal identities rather than as activities from which they are alienated or by which they are dominated” (p. 412). Career counseling across the lifespan has implications in all fields of counseling practices. As it pertains to mental health counseling, career counseling becomes an integrated conversation about the wants, needs, & desires a person has to have a satisfied existence.

Developmental Lifespan from a MH Perspective

Zunker (2016) stated that early life experiences tend to influence later life decisions. As it applies to career counseling, this is the core and foundation for how young children begin to view the world and all it has to offer. For example, children who have parental figures who exhibit hard work ethic are likely to influence their young children especially if it is reinforced with at-home activities (e.g., chores). These experiences, along with other life experiences, are likely to shape what a child decides to do. From a MH perspective, because the child’s feelings about these practices greatly challenge or confirm their beliefs, it will affect their behaviors.

Erikson’s Psychosocial Developmental Model illustrates the challenges that people face at different stages of their life development. What made Erikson’s model much more appealing (versus Freud’s Psychosexual Theory) is that it included polarities that challenged each individual’s relationship to his/her culture, family, and life environment (Syed and McLean, 2015). So as it is applied to career counseling in the cases of young children and adolescents, Erikson’s developmental model provides a theoretical explanation for the decisions and choices one makes at certain times of his/her life.

Branje, Lieshout, & Gerris (2007) studied personality development across adolescence and adulthood to see if the Big Five personality factors (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience) changed as individuals aged and gained experience. Their research suggested that males have fewer changes than females, but both sexes showed increasing signs of maturity and adaptation as they aged. The importance of their study was that it showed that personality continued to develop during the middle adulthood potentially because of the delegation of new responsibilities (i.e., parenthood). As it is applied to career counseling, the changing course of one’s career can have profound impact on their livelihood and decisions that (in)directly affect how one views his/her future.

Thoughts from the “Other Side”

Based upon Maslow’s (1943) Hierarchy of Needs, there exist several, innate physiological needs during infancy: food, water, shelter, sleep, air (breathing), excretion, and sensory satisfaction (e.g., touch, taste, hear, feel, and smell; Daniels, 1992; Maslow, 1943; and Seeley, 1992). The early, formative years allow the child to experience the world through their parent’s permission. Fast forward to adulthood, and these same basic needs are still required; however, they have evolved into something much more complex. When integrated with the work life, it is not surprising that these same needs are still needed in the workplace environment; however, they are ascribed new titles or new entitlements. For example, infants have the need for food; employees have the need for a clean environment to enjoy said food. Another example: infants have a need for sleep; employees need an hour per day for a break to do with it whatever they would like. These needs have never left; they have just evolved. The career demands that one has available to him/her that are most desirable are the attributes the (s)he will seek. In these instances, it will be necessary to determine if a client is okay with where (s)he is at this junction of his/her life. If they are not, it will be important to determine how career counseling and lifespan developmental theory can be influential in assisting with producing changes.

Wm D. Stinchcomb

References

Branje, S.J.T., Van Lieshout, C.F.M., & Gerris, J.R.M. (2007). Big Five Personality Development in Adolescence and Adulthood. European Journal of Personality, 21, 45-67.

Daniels, J. (1992). Empowering homeless children through school counseling. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 27(2), 104-113.

Maslow, A.H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.

Newman, B. M., & Newman, P. R. (2012).Development through life: a psychosocial approach (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Seeley, E. (1992). Human needs and consumer economics: The implications of Maslow’s theory of motivation for consumer expenditure patterns. Journal Of Socio-Economics, 21(4), 303.

Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2015). Understanding identity integration: Theoretical, methodological, and applied issues. Journal of Adolescence, 47, 109-118. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.09.005

Zunker, V. G. (2016). Career counseling: A holistic approach, 9th Edition. [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781305729759/

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