Homeland security

Homeland security is a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the US, reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the damage and recover from attacks that occur. The homeland security sector was created primarily from a collection of obtainable federal agencies in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.It was the largest government reform in 50 years. This department implied a number of government functions previously in other departments. It superseded, but did not replace the Office of Homeland Security, which retained a recommended role. It was established on November 25, 2002 by the Homeland Security Act and with approval began operating on January 24, 2003. After months of discussion about employee rights and benefits, congress passed it shortly after the midterm elections, and it was signed into law by U.S.A President George W. Bush. The department intended to strengthen U.S.A executive branch organizations associated to “homeland security” into a single cabinet agency. It was formed as a reaction to the terrorists’ attacks that occurred on September 11th, 2001. The Department of Homeland Security manages the Emergency attentiveness and Response Directorate. The directorate helps accomplish the Department’s overarching goal: to keep America safe from terrorist attacks. The Department works to enhance attentiveness and response efforts and to integrate these efforts with prevention work.

Human Behavior

People have always had diverging opinions on whether one’s behavior can change depending on situations one is subjected to. Since time of immemorial, human beings have exhibited divergent behaviors which have been attributed to different reasons one of them being the cultural background as well as the behavior of the society they are brought out in.  It is thus paramount to appreciate these opinions since they form the basis of understanding how human beings respond and behave when they are subjected to certain conditions. We cannot wholly remove human beings from the environment they live in since it has a bearing on their general behavior and conduct. There is always a reason why people behave the way they behave. Prison have for a long time tried to put in place rehabilitation programs that are aimed at changing the bad behavior of the offenders in an attempt to make them better persons. My own stand on rehabilitation programs is that they can change the behavior of the offenders if well administered. This paper seeks to have an in-depth look on how rehabilitation programs can be effective in changing behavior of the offenders and make them better persons once they finish their sentence.

In yester years, prisons were widely viewed as a place that was aimed as punishing the law breakers with a view of making them pay for their bad deeds in the society, country and world at large. This concept has changed gradually with prisons being mandated to come up with rehabilitation programs that are targeted in improving and shaping the law offenders in such a way that they can fit well in the society once they finish their jail term. The main question here is looking at the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programs that are on increase in prisons across the globe.behaviour is

A number of rehabilitation have designed and implemented in most prisons across the world and their main purpose being to enhance and inculcate good behavior that is within the laws that govern the country. The prisoners are normally expected to fit well in the society and change from their bad ways of conducting themselves and abiding by the law to become better citizens. This change is expected to be reflected on their behavior change as well as preventing them from re-offending again. Learning is said to take place when there is change in behavior. Some theories support the assertion that ones’ behavior can change based on stimulus that are presented. Borrowing from a number of behavioral change theories that have been tested for a number of decades, it is true to say that behavior of a person can change. It is important to know that for behavior to change, number factors come into play. The desired behavior needs to be reinforced over a period of time before one gets conditioned to such reinforcement. One of the widely used theories that are associated with behavior change is the Pavlov conditioning theory. According to this theory, positive reinforcement brings about behavior change. Some opponent of the effectiveness of prisons’ rehabilitation programs have used statistics that indicate around 90% of prison convicts are likely to commit crime again once they are released to the society. The weakness of looking at the rehabilitation program in isolation is the fact that one cannot convincingly tell where the problem lies. The challenge that most convicts face once they get out of the prison is dejection from the society. The society should be ready welcome such people back to the society, give them the support they need in order play part in reforming such convicts. More often than not, society tends to delink itself from non-law abiders and this frustrates the convicts, making them feel less welcomed individuals in that society. This means the problem is not with the rehabilitation programs offered but rather a de-link on the chain of the reform program that is supposed to extend to the society and country at large. Some prisoners are reported to behave well while serving their sentence, only to have adverse change once they go back to the society. This therefore point out on the assertion that rehabilitation program contribute to behavior change. The stumbling block in rehabilitation program is the manner in which they are implemented. Taking note of the ever increasing number of law breakers, it becomes difficult to effectively administer the rehabilitation programs to such big population making it lack the effectiveness that it was designed for. To overcome this challenge, the implementers of the rehabilitation programs should look forward to inculcate the knowledge to the convicts on importance of changing their uncoming behavior regardless of the population the handle. This means they need to collaborate with government in order to be given adequate human resource who can assist in disseminating knowledge to the convicts.

 The adage that an old dog cannot be taught new tricks is misused by opponents of prisons rehabilitation programs. The facts is that an old dog can still learn new things and tricks, the only that than might be affected is the rate at which it can assimilate the new concepts.

Environment has been associated to playing a pivotal role in development of human behavior. It has been found that our interaction with the environment determines the manner in which we behave and goes further to point out that even observation alone can make an individual change the way he behaves. This forms an important basis for program designers for rehabilitating prisoners to pay attention to. By this, the rehabilitation program will focus to an individual rather than having a blanket program for all prisoners. For behavioral change to take, the background of a person is important so as to understand the main key factors that could have contributed towards a certain behavior. Early interactions like peer group, school attended and society at large help in shaping ones’ behavior either positively or negatively. This affirms that rehabilitation programs in prison can change behavior of the convict to the desired one if well administered. This theory therefore supports the assertion of being in a position to change behavior of a person regardless of the age, though it does not underscore the fact that children have more brain cells than grown ups, meaning it is easier to change behavior of young people than that of adults. The blue print identity theory as put forward by…. Presupposes that, as early as during the child birth, every individual has got distinct characters that are brought forth by genetic make-up.  It further notes that such behavior like aggression, humble and politenesses are observable at an early stage. This theory can therefore be used to group offenders in various distinct classes depending on the nature of crimes they committed. This will aid in understanding their behavior and which programs can be suitable to suppress such unacceptable behavior.



Plagiarism is the lack of originality in presentation of pieces of work. It may also be referred to as a form of cheating in the academic field. This is because it entails the use of another person’s ideas and presenting them as one’s. However, it should be noted that plagiarism occurs when someone uses another person’s work as their own. This implies that one may use someone else’s idea provided that they cite the person’s work. This applies for both paraphrased work and quoted work. This paper seeks to have an in-depth look at anti-plagiarism policies within the US and UK academic institutions

Plagiarism comes in different forms. There is full plagiarism that involves using authors word for word without even making any effort to paraphrase a single word. Other types of plagiarism range from self, minimal, partial and source citation. Plagiarism is wrong and should be highly condemned. This is because it is stealing and should therefore not be treated with any exception. Use of other people’s work and presenting them as one’s is theft of intellectual work and should be treated as a crime.  Its perpetrators should be punished through punitive measures in order to curb its spread. Unlike in the commercial setting where there are patent rights to guard the work of each and every person; it is not the case in the academic setting. However, plagiarism is highly condemned and anyone found with plagiarized work may damage their reputation and lose their career. (Gilmore 53)

For students, when presenting their work for assessment, they must ensure that it is not plagiarized. They can achieve this by acknowledging anybody’s work that they may have made reference to when doing their assignments. Failure to acknowledge other people’s work may lead to achievement of lower grades. As a result, they lose their market in the business world. They must, therefore, ensure that they avoid plagiarism at all costs.

The US and UK academic institutions have come up with an anti-plagiarism policy. This policy ensures that individuals are forewarned of the consequences of plagiarism. However, the policy also tries to distinguish between intentional and unintended forms of plagiarism. The policy is implemented through the learning institutions. The academic institutions take an initiative role of educating students on ways of avoiding plagiarism in their work. However, in case of any plagiarism case, the institution concerned has the authority to take action as it deems rightful. The policies also look at the violation of copyrights. (Caroll and Appleton 43)

In the UK and US institutions of learning, plagiarism is highly discouraged and is categorized as an academic fraud. As a result, involvement in plagiarism may result to penalties which may include fines and expulsion to the larger extent. The  penalties for plagiarism  may lead to one being expelled from the school as well as cancellation of academic certificates he/she may have been awarded. The implementation of these polices is aimed at curbing the rate at which academic cheating is spreading. At this era of advanced electronic use and development, the rate of students plagiarizing other peoples’ work is on the rise, necessitating for stringent measures being put in place. These policies will therefore help in curbing the rapid upsurge of plagiarism that is spreading very fast within the academic institution, making it ideal to have necessary measures so as to make learning real and valuable.

It should be noted that plagiarism is a serious offense that may even have heavy penalties such as facing jail term and imprisonment. Students need to learn the importance of presenting original work. In case of any references made, it is also equally essential that the students acknowledge the owner of the work. In acknowledging the authors of these works, students also need to learn how to use the correct citation style. (Anderson 56). It is also important for students to utilize the easily accessible anti-plagiarism software that are available online. Some of these anti-plagiarism softwares include; turnitin, duplichecker and article checker. Originality is extremely crucial in presentation of any piece of work. Plagiarism is not only cheating, but also dishonesty to self and others. Other nations should follow the example of the US and UK academic institutions in ensuring that students present original work. Use of set policies which have dire consequences in case of failure to adhere to them is a good implementation process. This will lead to the shaping of writers who are creative and who are ready to work like a team, eventually leading to prosperity in academic field. Unless plagiarism is discouraged to students, the world will be treading on dangerous grounds which will likely lead to suppressed creativity, laziness and generally, a generation of people who will not be in a position to tackle day to day challenges of work and life. Any students caught plagiarizing should be subjected to punitive punishment which will serve as a warning to other students who might be tempted to do it. Unless it is discouraged, the world will soon be full of academic liars who will have good grades but which can not be translated to practical application of knowledge they claim to have accrued during their academic life.

Elaborating the Communication Theory of Identity

Elaborating the Communication Theory of Identity

            Communication Theory of Identity focuses on how effectively one can identify with an issue through communication. Writing is one of the ways that is used to pass the required information to a reader who is the intended audience. A good author will always make efforts to use a language that is easy to be understood by the reader and also present his work in such a way that a reader is able to relate to the issues written. This is when it can be said that the author has delivered his message to the reader and lack of this would result to ineffective communication.

            When Foer says “ …… given that eating animals is in absolutely no way necessary for my family- unlike some in the world, we have easy access to a wide variety of other foods- should we eat animals?” Here Foer is acknowledging the fact that he is reaching to a reader who eats meat. The author here is quite categorical when he asks the reader “… should we eat animals?” This question can most probably be applied to a reader who eats meat as a source of some of the nutrients that a human body requires for normal functioning.  It is quite definite that for effective communication one should choose the words to use appropriately. If for instance such a question of whether we should continue eating animals is asked to reader who does not eat meat, it could appear vague and irrelevant in that context.

            Foer has continuously shown that he is making a deliberate and conscious effort to relate to the reader. When he says “…we have easy access to a wide variety of other foods”, the author is trying to have the reader feel as being part of the issue that is being communicated. The use of “we” plays a major role in showing that the author is no just talking about himself, but incorporating ideas from others as well.

            The kind of “constant personal decision making” that Foer is referring to is the ability to of a vegetarian to decide not to be eating animals. He mentions that “ there are even circumstances that I would be forced to east a dog.” The author uses a dog just as an example of the many animals that might be used a source of meat. Eating a dog requires one to make a strong decision on whether it is appropriate to do so. Since Foer has said that “being a vegetarian is a flexible framework,” it implies that in a situation where the reader may be a vegetarian, one should be wise to make a decision of avoiding animal meat.

            Foer suggests that constantly being caught in making a personal decision is taxing and hard to keep up. This is clear when he says “I couldn’t honestly argue, as many vegetarians try to, that it is as rich as a diet that includes meat.” Many vegetarians find it quite difficult to keep to their decisions of avoiding meat and those who stick to their principles justify their state by alleging that a vegetarian diet could be containing the same level nutrients as meat. Foer finds it taxing to check the limits of the meats that are available for him. He says, “I love sushi, I love fried chicken, I love a good steak. But there is a limit to my love.” The ability to limit oneself especially when there are such a great variety of meats is a challenging decision that might not be so easy to keep.             Foer states that “being a vegetarian is a flexible framework.” The sentences that support this remark are, “I love sushi, I love fried chicken, I love fried chicken, I love a good steak. But there is a limit to my love.” This clearly indicates that Foer would not view the issue eating animals with a fixed opinion. One may in a given circumstance evaluate or make a decision on whether to be a vegetarian or not. In other words one cannot entirely say that being a vegetarian is the best or that eating meat is the recommended option. Foer also adds to say that “… of course there are circumstances I can conjure under which I would eat meat.” This is again an indication that when one is a vegetarian, it is not necessarily written on a stone but there should be a flexibility of having to eat especially when it is the only alternative. It would be naïve to die of hunger when meat is available in the pretence that that one is a strict vegetarian. Likewise an individual who is not a vegetarian should eat vegetables when of course the circumstances demand for that.

Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer


            Choosing the right and appropriate career is one of the most important and direction giving decisions that one undertakes in life. The world is full of opportunities to choose from and it may require more than just normal qualifications to fit in a field of interest. When it comes to freelance writing, there exists a lot of options to choose from, which further makes deciding a bit difficult. In this article, freelance writing is looked at in details considering what it is, the opportunities it opens Vis a Vis benefits, the risks associated with this kind of career as well as expectations that may be associated with the independent career (Allen 32).

Aspects of Freelance Writing

            Being a freelance writer, one is self employed and can work within a range of accepted term basis. In various fields, freelance writing is common, and this is seen in areas like journalism, publishing of books, and journals designing. Operations in this genre of work differ fundamentally from other kinds of engagement. The writer may require that the company signs a written contract with him or her as a binding agreement while others may depend on verbal agreement between the two parties involved. The rules set aside are enforceable as per the nature of the work. In freelance writing, levels of payments also vary considerably. This means that freelancers may charge by the day, hour, page or on a per- project basis while others have the adoption of value based principal method, in which the work is charged depending on by the client what output the client expects. (Burrell, and Formichelli 22).

Benefits of Freelance Writing

            This writing is associated with many benefits as well as risks. The benefits major on the world of opportunities it opens up for the writer to focus on. An outstanding opportunity is on making instant cash, in such a way that if one can meet the deadline, an extra coin is always added to his daily earnings. Freelance writing opens an opportunity to part time or full time careers. With great need to earn and make money, one may be either employed or not. On initial employment, it’s normal in human beings that whatever one earns is always not enough and therefore, engaging in this independent work provides an opportunity of earning extra income. It may also provide a long-term employment as long as one may be able to establish endless contacts with the company in terms of orders undetaken.

            It is also associated with many possibilities of opportunities to exercise your skills and expertise. Writing magazines and newsletters columns, editing articles and business writing consist of many opportunities of freelance writing in which ones knowledge and experience are expanded. Other opportunities include creative freedom and a field of challenging and high expectations thus one gets used to deadlines and quality work. This kind of  independent job does not require much technical training or experience as it requires mostly one’s creativity and commitment (Allen 33). Regarding competition one does not need to fear fierce competition as associated with normal businesses. Though competition is inevitable, all what is required is possession of good writing capabilities and when one acquires them then there’s no not need to worry about dealing with tough competition.

            Freelance writing is associated with many benefits depending on where and what a one wants to be with time. There is usual enjoyment of a variety of assignments to work on than in regular payment to the extent there can always be work to do as long as one is fully committed. Other benefits include flexible working schedule in which one has the freedom to choose their working hours. There is also mutual relationship between the freelance writer and the company; in that one’s experience can make the two parties establish a longstanding relationship.

            Another benefit is that new orders are delivered directly on your web page, and one can take as many orders as he or she would like to complete. This creates independence and enhances privacy. To complete as many assignments as one would like constitutes to freedom on how much one would like to earn, bearing in mind that in this work one’s payment depends on how well he or she performs. The other benefit is the satisfaction of recognition one gets from the customer, the company he or she is working for and in the payments made. There are also a variety of paying methods, and most of them are non taxable and the other benefit that cannot be assumed is clients making timely payments mostly on fortnight basis (Williams 42).

Setbacks Associated with Freelance Writing

            Although this engagement is beneficial, it is also associated with several drawbacks and risks. One of the crucial draw back is uncertainty of work, thus failure of income generation. In freelancing, although there may be many orders per day, it is always in a situation that tomorrow will depend on fate. One is never certain on how many orders will be available the following day in which there may be many, few or even none at all. People employed on a permanent basis enjoy a variety of company benefits from their employers. This may range form company pension, health insurance, annual leave, off days and bonuses, and in contrast, this is not the case with freelance writing. It is temporary employment, and an order is dealt with the time it’s delivered on one’s page, on the website. Therefore, the bonuses and benefits associated with permanent employment are not applicable in freelance writing. A major risk is breach of contract in which case a freelance writer and the company may sign an agreement. If the agreement is breached by the company, it becomes so agonizing to the writer as it leads to loss of money (Burrell, and Formichelli 23). This makes one to be extremely much cautious when dealing with other new companies.

            When working for a new company, there is always a possibility of not being paid on time.  The company may first assess the freelancer’s work quality, and this may be associated with scepticism upon which ones work may be discredited after edition. This may create a lot of discouragement if one is a starter and the delayed payment may even result to no payment if one’s work is not presentable at all. Other risks in this job include the company failing to fulfil their promises and the writer’s work being stolen. When company fails to fulfil their promises, either in not making timely payment or not paying according to the terms of agreement, this creates a risk in this business by failing to foster mutual understanding. Further more, if the writer’s work is stolen and payment is not made, this means the writer has worked in vain and ample time has been lost in the process.

            Freelance writing is considered to be a good and encouraging business. Although associated with many risks, its benefits outweigh the risks in various ways. First the benefit of making cash outweighs many of the risks. When one engages in money making matters the mind should be prepared to face challenges. Therefore, it’s a matter of solving the issues and continuing with looking for more companies. Some major benefits like flexible working schedules, expanding mutual relationship through establishing a network of companies and having payments made and based on the freelancer’s performance outweighs disadvantages such as lack of company benefits and uncertainly of work. Though a breach of the contract is a serious drawback, the experience gained should assist one in getting more companies and also establishing firm bases at the beginning ofagreements (Williams 43). This means that ways of compensatingeither of the contracting parties, when either breaches the contract, should be stated clearly.


            Everyone has different views on what is to be expected as beneficial from this kind of writing. As a freelancer, the expected benefits include writing to provide a lasting employment opportunity for more people. This means that the opportunity will be beneficial by creating more employment opportunities to the willing and committed minds. There should also be dignity benefit and mutual relationships made stronger. Being a home business, writing through research should benefit one from getting diverse and wide knowledge, with reference to the researched fields of work.  Freelance writing is a career like any other and although it requires a lot during induction, with commitment, creativity and responsibility it is by far a most fulfilling career choice and its my hope it will continuously exist to provide opportunities to the developing and willing minds.

Solar System Essay

How to Compose a Solar System Essay

An essay is a short piece of writing, usually on a particular subject such as the solar system.  There are important steps that should be taken in order to end up with a good solar system essay. Before a consideration of the steps is made, it is important to mention that a good essay fits the purpose for which it is intended; is plagiarism free; has a superb structure, flawless grammar and first-rate spelling. In order to write an excellent solar system essay several steps should be observed.

Initially, thorough research on the topic should be done. Research provides background information based on findings of what others have done on the topic.  A writer should conduct research first from the internet in order to get background information about the solar system before proceeding to academic databases and libraries for in depth information. Since all sources are acknowledged in academic writing, it is incumbent upon the writer at this stage to keep a record of all sources. It is important to note internet is not exclusively reliable hence the writer should not rely on it entirely.

Once notes are made during the research phase, a writer should analyze and organize them in to a conceptual ‘essay’. A framework in the form of an outline should be drafted at this stage. This should contain for instance, an introductory section about the solar system, points to be covered in the body and an appropriate conclusion. In essence, an outline gives a mental picture of the essay.

After coming up with an outline, writing begins. The essay starts with an introduction which makes it clear, through the thesis statement what the writer’s assertion or stand on the solar system is. Once the thesis is stated, subsequent paragraphs should follow, each with a singular focus that should be captured by its topic sentence. A topic sentence is basically the first in every paragraph which gives a writer’s direction to the reader. It is in the paragraph that quotations, arguments and counter arguments occur with examples and supporting evidence for claims made. Paragraphs are interrelated and therefore should be linked by connectives in order for the ideas to flow. A paragraph about the components of the solar system may be linked to another one about its appearance in a logical manner such that a proper flow is established. It is important to recap the main assertion or idea in the final paragraph in case the essay is long and difficult to follow for the reader. A good conclusion sums ideas of the writer and points out the way forward.

Finally, a proper referencing of in-text citations must be done at the end of the essay in accordance with requirements of a tutor or writer’s discipline. The essay should be proofread before submission in order to weed out grammatical and spelling errors. Such steps should surely lead to a good solar system essay.



Since the period of renaissance, when science took over and religion got a stab on the back, scientists have always come up with ideas that are either very helpful in the day today life or these ideas may be utter contempt of the social norms. This is where the idea of scientists manipulating human DNA to develop a man-made human has always encountered persistent criticism and seems not actualize in the near future. Developing humans in the labs is categorically contempt to the social norms and values that we hold.

Interestingly, the society is not ready for clones. People are not anxious of seeing five identical humans slave-like service. Actually, the contemplary society is working so hard to find a solution to the bee hive-like activities that man has indulged into. And that’s the reason that new gadgets are being invented everyday. From remote controls, voice recognition abilities, man is working to make life easier day by day.

But come to think of it, that there is cloning of people. Who would be the donors of the DNA genes? Religion has condemned cloning. They believe that cloning is like playing God. Man was competing with God in the art of creation. But people would still donate their DNA. Under a serious scrutiny, people donate sperms. There are sperm-banks in many countries and so artificial insemination is largely accepted in many societies. However, the religion has condemned the act since the sperms can only be harvested by masturbation.

It is therefore my believe that, people would possibly ‘sell’ their genes. But in the selling of the genes, the human being characteristics would probably determine the clones functioning/responsibility in the society

I would therefore argue that, a beautiful lady would sell her genes so that clones of beautiful ladies can be developed and be used probably in the airline industry, beauty/modeling or even for prostitution. Why would man have to develop ‘humans’ that they have power over? Man wants to feel the authority, authority over modern man is now too impossible with heavy democratization. People with authority will have to buy genes from people, who he/she believe that they are his/her subjects. Major industries will therefore contract young people for their DNA. The young people will donate or sell their DNA.

Development of clones will lead to a change in the structural conditions. There will be no one time that the clones will achieve their freedom from human beings. Clones will be used by humans at their own pleasure. Think about this, clones are mainly developed for them to offer services to humans. They may mainly be required by those in the industries so as to offer cheap labor and cut the costs of production and hence an increase in profits. It will therefore be an investment strategy.  The people that own industries have authority and will not allow the clones to have their freedom. Clones should not be developed at all. They will not suit in today’s society. They will replace the middle class humans working in the industries. They will be utilized at lower costs than normal humans. Humans will have to lose their jobs or offer the service at the lower price too. Wages will go down and the rich will become richer and the poor will become poorer. Therefore conflict will be experienced between the clones and the middle class humans.




Following the structure fire that happened on 1st of November 2010, the fire department, following the findings and the happenings had been able to come up the following post-incident analysis.


Date: 1st November 2010. Your Incident Supervisor: Capt. Morris Hurt

Area Diagram Attached: Yes Alarm #: 025

 Your Unit Number: 355678 Dispatch Time: 0205 Arrival Time: 0220hrs
Alarm: 1st

The structure involved in the incident was a single family dwelling unit of split level. It was a three bed-roomed, of wooden floor and plywood ceiling. The structure had part of the wall built with wood. The wooden staircase would have probably spread the fire to the bedrooms which are in the upper floor of the structure. The wooden walls could also be considered as a catalyst to the fire. This house was not fitted with any fire alarm system or gadgets that would have reduced the spread of the fire.

The crew had some problems accessing the incident’s scene. This was due to the poor condition of the road network in the neighborhood.


This structure was not installed with any fire alarm or fire preventing equipments, a common characteristic of this neighborhood, which is a little bit old, with an average of 25 years. The relevant authorities should ensure that these house structures are equipped with necessary fire equipments. People should also be educated on fire safety measures as the case in this incident, careless disposal of ashes is a key causation of this structure fire.


The caller, who is a resident of this area, gave vivid address to the scene. This therefore provided the crew with clear directions and therefore did not delay apart from the poor condition of the road network. There was excellent communication between the crew and the nearest hospital, where paramedics were deployed to transport the victims to hospital.


The crew was properly prepared for this incident with different crew members getting their assigned roles and positions. There were equipments ready for the fire fight.


There was good flow of communication among the members of the crew. There was need to make quick decision and due to the large experience of the crew members, the crew was able to battle the fire. Upon arrival, around fifteen minutes, the structure was badly burnt in the garage and was rapidly spreading to the living room and to the bedrooms. There was the apparatus and crew of four, ladder 15 with crew of four, and engine 10 with crew of four. However engine 10 was on another response but did that did not affect the brilliant performance by the crew.


The operation run smoothly, with minimal failures from the equipments. The crew worked in such a coordinated way that no member was strained by the operation. They were later treated with food and drinks.  The paramedics gave a recommendable service, giving the victims first aid and transporting them to the hospital.


There was a safety officer assigned in the operation. There was no officer injured during the operation. However, there is need to improve the safety kits for the safety of the fighters.


Formal investigations are underway. However, the investigation team has been investigating the ashes disposed in the garage. This seems to shape the investigations. However, a full report about the incident will be out soon.


There is need to educate the community on fire safety and also fire fighting skills. This neighborhood had a terrible road network, supposing that the residents had the skills, it would have been possible to prevent the fire from massive destruction.

Change management

Change management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. It is an organizational process aimed at empowering employees to accept and embrace changes in their current business environment.[1]. In project management, change management refers to a project management process where changes to a project are formally introduced and approved.[2]

Examples of Organizational Change

  1. Strategic changes
  2. Technological changes
  3. Structural changes
  4. Changing the attitudes and behaviors of personnel

As a multidisciplinary practice, Organizational Change Management requires for example: creative marketing to enable communication between change audiences, but also deep social understanding about leadership’s styles and group dynamics. As a visible track on transformation projects, Organizational Change Management aligns groups’ expectations, communicates, integrates teams and manages people training. It makes use of metrics, such as leader’s commitment, communication effectiveness, and the perceived need for change to design accurate strategies, in order to avoid change failures or solve troubled change projects. An effective change management plan needs to address all above mentioned dimensions of change. This can be achieved in following ways:

  1. Putting in place an effective Communication strategy which would bridge any gap in the understanding of change benefits and its implementation strategy.
  2. Devise an effective skill upgrading scheme for the organization. Overall these measures can counter resistance from the employees of companies and align them to overall strategic direction of the organization.
  3. Personal counseling of staff members (if required) to alleviate any change related fears.
  4. Key words here are ‘perceive’ and ‘threat’. The threat need not be real or large for resistance to occur. 
  5. In its usual description it refers to change within organizations, although it also is found elsewhere in other forms. Resistance is the equivalent of objections in sales and disagreement in general discussions.
  6. Resistance may take many forms, including active or passive, overt or covert, individual or organized, aggressive or timid.

7.   Articles

The resistance zoo 

This is a bit of fun and a lot of serious. It is surprising how many animals you can spot in change. Using animals is an entertaining and useful metaphor that you can use in many situations to break the ice and tell home truths.

My zoo

Here are some of the animals in my zoo. I’ve met all of these along the way in the change work I’ve done.


The ostrich famously puts its head in the sand when faced with danger. Like a small child, they work on the principle that if they cannot see the predator then the predator cannot see them. This does not seem to be a very good survival strategy. Fortunately, the ostrich also has long legs and can run away very fast.


Moles are dark and difficult to see. They burrow underground and are hard to find. Then they pop up when you think everything has been completed and the change is complete. They make a horrible mess of things and are very destructive.


Tigers fight tooth and claw all the way. They are powerful — or at least that is what they want you to believe. Hurt them only a little and they will seek to hurt you a whole lot more. Their message is this: mess with me at your peril. Go make your change elsewhere little person.


Dogs know that, although they are not bad fighters by themselves, they are far more powerful in a pack. They seek one another out and attack en masse. They are not fearless but know that together they create even more fear. They will fight dirty and nip at you until you are down and then rip you apart.


Owls are wise and knowledgeable people. They sit up on their branches in their tree, pontificating and pointing down at the trivial world below. The know better than you and are not slow to point this out, as well as pointing out all the little faults in your change project (which is, of course, somewhat below them).


Well, you knoow, those old snails, they just go soo slooww. They creep along at, well, a snail’s pace and hope that you will leave them to their own devices. Ho hum. See you then.

Signs of resistance 

When resistance to change occurs, then it is very helpful to be able to spot it coming and hence respond appropriately to it (rather than be surprised when the change mysteriously fails).

Early signs of resistance

If you can catch resistance early, then you can respond to it before it takes hold, effectively nipping it in the bud.


When the change is announced, the tom-toms will start beating loudly and grapevine will bear fruit of much and varied opinion. Keep your ear to the ground on what is being said around the coffee points. Listen particularly for declaration of intent and attempts to organize resistance.

Grumbling and complaint are natural ways of airing discomfort, so you should not try to squash it (you would fail, anyway). The biggest danger of it is when it is allowed to ferment in an information vacuum.

Respond to gossip by opening it up, showing you are listening to concerns and taking them seriously, and providing lots of valid information that will fill the vacuum.


Just as a high school class will test a teacher’s ability to maintain discipline, so also will some brave soul test out what happens when they resist change. They may, for example, not turn up to a meeting or openly challenge a decision.

How you deal with such early resistance will have a significant effect on what happens next. For example you can jump on the person and squash both them and their words, or you can take an adult position, describing what they have done and assertively questioning their motives.

Collectivism of resistance

Resistance can happen both on an individual case-by-case basis or people may band together.

Individual action

Individually, people may resist, although this is generally limited to the extent of their personal power. For those with lower power, this may include passive refusals and covert action. For those with more power, it can include open challenge and criticism.

Handle individual action individually, starting with those with greater power. As necessary, you may need to make an example, and disciplining a senior executive can send a strong signal to other resistors.

Collective action

When people find a common voice in organized resistance, then their words and actions can create a significant threat to the change, even though they are individually less powerful. Trade Unions are a classic example of this.

Organized resistance is usually a sign of a deep divide. People will not go to the bother of organizing unless they have serious issues with the change.

Manage collectives by negotiating with their leaders (which can be much easier than dealing with a myriad of smaller fires). You may well need to make concessions, but you at least should be able to rescue some key elements of the change. You can also ‘divide and conquer’ by striking deals with individual key players, although this must be done very carefully as it can cause a serious backlash.

Visibility of resistance

Sometimes resistance is out in the open, but more often it starts out in a more underhand, covert way.

Covert resistance

Covert resistance is deliberate resistance to change, but done in a manner that allows the perpetrators to appear as if they are not resisting. This may occur, for example, through sabotage of various kinds.

Handle covert resistance by showing that you know what is happening and setting in place investigations designed to identify the people responsible.

Overt resistance

Overt resistance does not try to hide, and is a result either of someone comfortable with their power, someone for whom covert acts are against their values, or someone who is desperate. This may take forms such as open argument, refusal or attack.

Deal with overt resistance by first seeking to respond openly and authentically. If the resistance is blind, then you will have no alternative but to defend, for example by isolating and disciplining attackers.

Activity of resistance

Overt resistance does not need to take positive action — sometimes it can be passive.

Passive resistance

Passive resistance occurs where people do not take specific actions. At meetings, they will sit quietly and may appear to agree with the change. Their main tool is to refuse to collaborate with the change. In passive aggression, for example, they may agree and then do nothing to fulfill their commitments.

This can be very difficult to address, as resisters have not particularly done anything wrong. One way to address this is to get public commitment to an action (and you can start small on this), then follow up — publicly if necessary — to ensure they complete the action. Then keep repeating this until they are either bought in or give in.

Active resistance

Active resistance occurs where people are taking specific and deliberate action to resist the change. It may be overt, with such as public statements and acts of resistance, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement.

Overt active resistance, although potentially damaging, is at least visible and you have the option of using formal disciplinary actions (although more positive methods should normally be used first). When it is covert, you may also need to use to covert methods to identify the source and hence take appropriate action.

Dealing with resistance

Here is a small raft of things you can do to handle resistance, starting with kind and moral approaches and ending with the harsher end of gaining compliance. This whole site has fleets other things you can do, of course.


The best approach to creating change is to work with them, helping them achieve goals that somehow also reach to the goals of the change project. When you work with people, they will be happier to work with you.

This is a good practice when people want to collaborate but are struggling to adjust to the situation and achieve the goals of change.


When people are not really bought into the rationale for the change, they may well come around once they realize why the change is needed and what is needed of them. In particular, if new skills are required, you can provide these via a focused course of education.


When people are not involved physically or intellectually, they are unlikely to be involved emotionally either. One of the best methods of getting people bought in is to get them involved. When their hands are dirty, they realize that dirt is not so bad, after all. They also need to justify their involvement to themselves and so persuade themselves that is the right thing to do.


When the other person cannot easily be persuaded, then you may need to give in order to get. Sit them down and ask what they are seeking. Find out what they want and what they will never accept. Work out a mutually agreeable solution that works just for them and just for you.


Manipulation means controlling a person’s environment such that they are shaped by what is around them. It can be a tempting solution, but is morally questionable and, if they sense what you are doing, will lead to a very dangerous backlash. Only consider this when change is necessary in the short term and all other avenues have been explored.


Even more extreme than subtle manipulation is overt coercion. This is where you sit them down and make overt threats, for example that if they do not comply that they will lose their jobs, perhaps in a humiliating and public sacking. This should only be used when speed is of the essence or when the other person themselves has taken to public and damaging actions.

Lewin’s freeze phases 

In the early 20th century, psychologist Kurt Lewin identified three stages of change that are still the basis of many approaches today.


A basic tendency of people is to seek a context in which they have relative safety and feel a sense of control. In establishing themselves, they attach their sense of identity to their environment. This creates a comfortable stasis from which any alternatives, even those which may offer significant benefit, will cause discomfort.

Talking about the future thus is seldom enough to move them from this ‘frozen’ state and significant effort may be required to ‘unfreeze’ them and get them moving. This usually requires Push methods to get them moving, after which Pull methods can be used to keep them going.

The term ‘change ready’ is often used to describe people who are unfrozen and ready to take the next step. Some people come ready for change whilst others take a long time to let go of their comfortable current realities.

See also: Unfreezing techniques


A key part of Lewin’s model is the notion that change, even at the psychological level, is a journey rather than a simple step. This journey may not be that simple and the person may need to go through several stages of misunderstanding before they get to the other side.

A classic trap in change is for the leaders to spend months on their own personal journeys and then expect everyone else to cross the chasm in a single bound.

Transitioning thus requires time. Leadership is often important and when whole organizations change, the one-eyed person may be king. Some form of coaching, counseling or other psychological support will often be very helpful also.

Although transition may be hard for the individual, often the hardest part is to start. Even when a person is unfrozen and ready for change, that first step can be very scary.

Transition can also be a pleasant trap and, as Robert Louis Stephenson said, ‘It is better to travel hopefully than arrive.’ People become comfortable in temporary situations where they are not accountable for the hazards of normal work and where talking about change may be substituted for real action.


At the other end of the journey, the final goal is to ‘refreeze’, putting down roots again and establishing the new place of stability.

In practice, refreezing may be a slow process as transitions seldom stop cleanly, but go more in fits and starts with a long tail of bits and pieces. There are good and bad things about this. In modern organizations, this stage is often rather tentative as the next change may well be around the next corner. What is often encouraged, then, is more of a state of ‘slushiness’ where freezing is never really achieved (theoretically making the next unfreezing easier). The danger with this that many organizations have found is that people fall into a state of change shock, where they work at a low level of efficiency and effectiveness as they await the next change. ‘It’s not worth it’ is a common phrase when asked to improve what they do.