Strategic Management

Difference between merger and acquisition (and takeover)-possible short answer/essay question
Reasons for acquisitions (m/c questions only)
Problems in achieving acquisition success (m/c questions only)
Figure 7.1 (p.205) is a good summary
Effective acquisition (table 7.1-p 210 is a good summary)
Define restructuring, downsizing, downscoping, LBO
Chapter 8
Figure 8.1 on p.228 is a good summary (possible essay question)
Identify opportunities

  • What are the benefits of international strategy?

International Business-Level Strategy
International Corporate Level Strategy (possible essay question)
Define liability of foreignness
Choice of international entry mode (possible essay question)
Risks in international environment (m/c questions only)
The Challenge of International Strategies (m/c questions only)
Chapter 9
Define cooperative strategy
Strategic alliances (types-m/c questions only)
Business level cooperative strategy (possible essay)
Corporate level cooperative strategy (m/c questions only)
International Cooperative Strategy
Network Cooperative Strategy
Managing Cooperative Strategies
Chapter 10
Separation of ownership and control
Agency problem (possible short answer/essay)
Three major players of corporate governance (possible essay)
Define corporate governance
Institutional owners (m/c questions only)
Classification of boards
Executive compensation (possible mistakes and how to pay-essay question)
International corporate governance (possible essay questions)-Be ready to compare and contrast U.S with U.K, Germany and Japan.
Ethical behavior (m/c questions only)
Chapter 11
Define organizational structure
Define organizational controls
Relationship between strategy and structure (possible essay question)
Evolutionary patterns of strategy and structure
Different types of organizational structures (possible essay question)
Matches between business-level strategies and functional strategies (m/c questions only)
Matches between corporate level strategies and multidivisional (m/c questions only)
Matches between international strategies and worldwide structure (m/c questions only)
Chapter 12
Define strategic leadership
Figure 12.1 (p.371)
Define managerial discretion (figure 12.2-p375 is a possible essay question)
Managerial succession (possible essay questions)
What are the key strategic leadership actions? (possible essay question)
What is balanced scorecard?
Chapter 13
Only m/c questions from this chapter
What is strategic and corporate entrepreneurship?
What is entrepreneurship?
Three different types of innovation
Who are entrepreneurs?
Internal innovation
Difference between incremental and radical innovation
Difference between autonomous and induced strategic behavior
Innovation through cooperative strategies
Innovation through acquisitions
Creating value through strategic entrepreneurship

How Teachers Will Assess Your Essay

Different professors teaching different courses will assess your class essays in different ways. Some will probably give you a clear breakdown of the grading, while others will keep the evaluation criteria under wraps. Whatever they’re standards or their way of assessing your essay, you need to write one that will surely make them approved you work.

For the most part, though, majority of teachers will appraise your essay under a few standard criteria, namely:

How well you answered the question. Did you answer the essay question correctly? Surprisingly enough, most students fail to understand the actual questions asked in the essay, writing page after page of content that tackles entirely different issues altogether.

How clear and organized your writing style is. Is your essay clearly-written, with well-organized ideas? Does it illustrate your thoughts in a way that your target audience will understand? Is it properly edited and sufficiently proofread? It goes without saying, an academic writing software can benefit you greatly on this end.

How well you analyzed the issues. Were you able to address all issues involved in the topic? How accurate was your analysis of each, especially in relation to your main thesis.

How well you understood and interpreted the source materials. Is your understanding of the source material accurate? Do you interpret them in a reasonable manner for your purposes?

How robust your references are. A typical 5,000 word essay should have at least 15 reference sources. While you can have less, it gives readers the impression that you didn’t exhaust the range of available materials for constructing your work.

Which statement is NOT true regarding the slope of a regression equation?

[wpecpp name=”regression equation” price=”70″ align=”center”]

  1. Which statement is NOT true regarding the slope of a regression equation?
a. The slope quantifies the steepness of the line.
b. If the slope is negative, Y tends to decrease as X tends to decrease.
c. If the slope is positive, Y tends to increase as X tends to increase.
d. None of the above, all are true.

Question 2

  1. The scale of the correlation coefficient is:
a. nominal
b. interval
c. ordinal
d. ratio

Question 3

  1. A fellow researcher tells you that she got a p calculated of .04 from an inferential test she conducted. She asks you if her results are statistically significant. The most informed response would be:
a. Yes, because the probability of obtaining your sample statistic was less than .05.
b. Yes, because your alpha level was greater than your obtained p calculated.
c. No,because the probability of obtaining your sample statistic was greater than .05.
d. No, because your alpha level was greater than your obtained p calculated.
e. It depends, what did you set your probability of Type I error to be?

Question 4

  1. Use the following scenario to answer the next 2 questions.

Working a full-time job and taking classes at night can be very stressful at times. Recently a study was conducted to determine whether the amount of sleep taken the night before a test differed for UNT graduate students with full-time jobs as compared to UNT graduate students in general, and you expect that graduate students with full-time jobs get less sleep. The data collected were as follows. Assume that we know the general population of UNT graduate students sleep 7 hours the night before a test and that this distribution is normal. The standard deviation around this population mean is 2.5 hours. The study’s sample of 25 UNT graduate students with full-time jobs slept 6 hours before a test with a standard deviation of 5. Assume alpha = .05. ROUND ALL CALCULATIONS TO TWO DECIMAL PLACES.
What is the calculated Z-test value?

a. -.2
b. -.4
c. -1.0
d. -2.0
e. none of the above

Question 5

  1. What is the p calculated (probability) for your sample results?
a. .0114
b. .3446
c. .0228
d. .1554
e. .1723

Question 6

  1. Statistical significance testing (null hypothesis tests) depends on the assumption that:
a. you have a large sample size.
b. the null hypothesis is true in the population.
c. you have a low risk if Type I error.
d. the alternative hypothesis cannot be proven true.
e. none of the above

Question 7

  1. A statistically significant result means that, given the assumptions of the test, you have a(n):
a. replicable result.
b. important result
c. unlikely result
d. unimportant result

Question 8

  1. In the process of testing a null hypothesis, which of the following should precede the others.
a. Computing the test statistic.
b. Deciding whether to reject Ho.
c. Determining your conclusion regarding group differences.
d. Establishing the criterion for rejecting.

Question 9

  1. Which of the following is not true about Pearson r and Spearman rho?
a. r ranges from -1 to +1.
b. When Spearman rho = 1.00, then Pearson r will always be 1.00.
c. When Pearson r = 1.00, then Spearman rho will always be 1.00.
d. r and rho cannot be compared without more information.

Question 10

  1. Which alpha level below corresponds to the most risk of Type I error?
a. alpha = .10
b. alpha = .05
c. alpha = .01
d. alpha = .001

Question 11

  1. Which of the following is an example of an alternative hypothesis?
a. Exercising 30 minutes a day for 2 weeks does not decrease heart rate by 10%.
b. Taking 500mg of ibuprofen within 20 minutes of onset will decrease headache pain.
c. Studying more than 5 hours for a statistics final does not impact your grade.
d. There is no difference between the mean self-esteem scores of mean and women athletes at UNT.

Question 12

  1. Graphic r-Q1 of 2
a. .8
b. -.8
c. -1.0
d. .7
e. .6

Question 13

  1. If we now add the two plotted points marked with (g), which of the following is not true?
a. The line of best fit will come closer to catching all points.
b. r will increase in magnitude.
c. r will approach its numerical limit.
d. None of the above; all are true.

Question 14

  1. The primary goal of inferential statistics is to:
a. describe characteristics of samples based on population parameters.
b. suggest characteristics of populations based on sample statistics.
c. find exact values for population parameters with our sample statistics.
d. find exact values for sample statistics given estimated population parameters.
e. drive graduate students “batty”.

Question 15

  1. Use the following data for the next four questions.
Linda 3 -2
Jane 4 0
Dean 5 2
Lesley 6 8
  1. Which statement is true?
a. Pearson r is positive.
b. Pearson r is positively skewed.
c. Pearson r = 1.
d. Pearson r = Spearman rho.
e. None of the above, all are false.

Question 16

  1. If we change Lesley’s X score to 4, which statement is true?
a. Pearson r becomes larger.
b. Spearman rho becomes smaller.
c. Spearman rho = Pearson r.
d. Pearson r becomes negatively skewed.
e. None of the above.

Question 17

  1. Now that we have changed Lesley’s X score to 4, if we change Linda’s X score to -20 which statement is true?
a. r is negative.
b. r becomes smaller.
c. rho becomes smaller.
d. rho = r.
e. None of the above.

Question 18

  1. On the original data set, if we change Lesley’s Y score (not X) to 4, which of the following is true?
a. r = rho
b. r is less than rho
c. r is greater than rho
d. Not enough information to determine.

Question 19

  1. Standard error is the standard deviation of a sampling distribution. The larger the standard error, the greater risk of _____________ error.
a. sampling
b. Type I
c. Type II
d. Type III
e. none of the above

Question 20

  1. Which of the following is not true of Pearson r and COV?
a. r and COV always have the same sign.
b. r is the COV with the impact of SD of X and SD of Y removed.
c. r has minimum and maximum limits while COV does not.
d. r = COV only when the SDs of both variables are 1.
e. None of the above are false, all are true.

Question 21

  1. Given r = .8 and a p calculated of .6, when we test the null hypothesis that r = 0, we can say that:
a. there is an 80% probability of obtaining at least r = .8 from any random sample, if the r should have been 0.
b. there is a 60% probability of obtaining at least r = .8 from any random sample, if the r should have been 0.
c. there is a 60% probability of not obtaining at least r = .8 from any random sample, if the r should have been 0.
d. there is an 80% probability of not obtaining at least r = .8 from any random sample, if the r should have been 0.

Question 22

  1. Which of the following is true regarding weak correlation coefficients?
a. They indicate a slight causation between variables.
b. They are found only with Pearson r coefficients.
c. They may be the result of restricted range for one of the variables.
d. They are rarely found in social science research.
e. They account for large amounts of dependent variable variability.

Question 23

  1. A Pearson r of .70 is how much stronger than a Pearson r of .00 in terms of shared variance between the two variables?
a. 30%
b. 40%
c. 49%
d. 70%
e. None of the above

Question 24

  1. In hypothesis testing, if we found a statistically significant difference between the means of two groups, then we:
a. rejected the null.
b. failed to reject the null.
c. committed Type I error.
d. committed Type II error.
e. none of the above

Question 25

  1. When choosing a non-directional hypothesis, we:
a. are choosing a one-tailed test.
b. decrease the likelihood of Type II error.
c. increase the likelihood of Type I error.
d. decrease the likelihood of statistical significance.
e. none of the above

Question 26

  1. As a special education researcher, you know that easy distractibility and diminished attention at school have been strongly correlated with low scores on certain tests of sensory integration. A child is found to have trouble paying attention in his classes. The school counselor asks for sensory integration therapy to remediate the attention problem. Should the therapist provide therapy right away?
a. Yes, because the strong correlation proves that therapy which improves sensory integration will definitely improve attention.
b. No, because therapy caseloads in public schools are high and this child s problems are relatively minor.
c. No, because a strong correlation doesn t mean that one condition necessarily causes the other; more investigation is needed to determine the possible causes of the child s distractibility.
d. Yes, because the school administrators are in favor of the therapy.

Question 27

  1. Dr. Marcela conducted a study on SAT and GRE scores and calculated the Pearson r correlation between these scores for a sample of graduate students. Which correlation coefficient is least likely to reflect the relationship between these variables?
a. -1.0
b. -0.1
c. 1.4
d. 1.0
e. None of the above, all are equally plausible

Question 28

  1. The bivariate reference point that is analogous to the univariate mean is called the:
a. covariance.
b. correlation.
c. coordinate.
d. centroid.

Question 29

  1. In a regression linear equation for one predictor and a dependent variable, in which of the following scenarios will the a weight always be 0?
a. When the SDs of both variables are the same.
b. When the means of both variables are the same.
c. When the SDs of both variables are 0.
d. When the variables are in Z score form.
e. None of the above

Question 30

  1. I am more informed of basic statistical practices now than when I began this class, and I am thusly truly grateful.
a. True
b. False
c. I don’t know because I think this is somehow a trick question
d. Maybe
e. It depends


How to Make an Outline of the Essay

To analyze the basic points of the essay is the first step in essay writing. You should write down all the information that brain discovers. After that you can arrange it in a sequence. It attracts the reader. Usually, we use following steps to write an essay:

1. Definitions

2. Merits

3. Demerits

4. Role in society

Most of the essays are moved around these points. With outline you can make your essay impressive.

How to make an outline

We take the example of “Un-employment“. Firstly, we write the definitions of unemployment in which we try to describe its meanings, nature and philosophy. Secondly, causes of unemployment describes in details. Thirdly, we write the outcome or results and how it affects our society.

If you are not well aware of the topic, write the outline at the end.

Wrong way to make an outline

1. Introduction

2. Advantages

3. Disadvantages

4. Conclusion

Correct way to make an Outline


1. Unemployment is a popular and widespread problem of modern age. People having no work to earn are called unemployed.

Causes of Unemployment:

1. Overpopulation is the main cause of unemployment.

2. There is lack of industry, mills and factories in the country.

3. The wrong distribution of wealth in the country also results in unemployment.

Effects of Unemployment:

1. Unemployment produces frustration among the educated people.

2. It gives birth to criminals and rebels.

3. It hampers the progress of the country.

How to overcome it:

1. The industry must be expanded.

2. Our education must be overhauled. It should be related to life.

Outline is the way to organize the information of your mind in an attractive form.

Topic Exploration

The Topic Exploration is an analysis of 500−750 words. Choose a topic from one of the module readings.  This topic can be anything of interest that is directly relevant to 17th century lyric and narrative poetry or restoration drama.  For example, you could look at a historical topic, such as a key historical figure, or you could choose to explore a specific author or play that we have not yet written about in this class.  Your essay should both fully explore the topic and should address the implications of your topic as it relates to the literary movement of the time.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the GCU Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
From The Temple
The Altar
A broken ALTAR, Lord, thy servant rears,
Made of a heart, and cemented with tears:
Whose parts are as thy hand did frame;
No workman’s tool hath touched the same.
AHeart alone
Is such a stone,
As nothing but
Thy power doth cut.
Wherefore each part
Of my hard heart
Meets the frame,
To praise they name:
That, if I chance to hold my peace,
These stones to praise thee may not cease.
Oh let thy blessed sacrifice be mine,
And sanctify this ALTAR to be thine.

Top Essay Writing Dilemmas and Solutions

Essay writing is quite a dynamic task. It demands a lot of hard work and persistence to produce a quality composition. Every step in essay writing is crucial that’s why essay writers often have a hard time finishing this complex and nerve- racking task.

Most writers encounter dilemmas in every stage of the entire essay writing process – from choosing a topic down to editing. Here are some common hindrances and easy solutions in creating top-rate essays.

Having an irrelevant or boring topic. It is a primary requirement in essay writing that the chosen subject to be discussed is exciting and relevant. Having a good topic to work on keeps the writing process enjoyable. Readers are also easily hooked with unique, thrilling and educating topics.

Solution: Read and observe. Check out for potential topics.

A weak thesis statement. Essays are written for the prime purpose of informing and persuading people. A thesis statement embodies the argument that the essay wants to prove. Having a weak and illogical argument makes the essay immaterial.

Solution: Don’t use mere opinions and accepted facts as an argument rather, something that is debatable.

An inefficient opening paragraph. A dull lead paragraph pushes the readers away. Too long starting paragraph also pisses the readers off. An enticing lead grabs the readers’ eyes to finish the entire article.

Solution: Use powerful words but not too much superlatives. Make it concise.

Lack of interest or understanding of the topic. A writer can never create a masterpiece without having sufficient knowledge on the topic. It can be very difficult to write about something that is unfamiliar. This leads to haphazardly-written works.

Solution: Choose a topic that excites interest. Do quality research about the topic.

Poorly researched evidence. Having irrelevant evidences or arguments makes reading an essay a waste of time for the readers. Poorly researched evidences prove nothing.

Solution: Look for credible and up-to-date research materials.

Inability to use evidence properly. Evidence doesn’t always equate to a quality essay. It depends on how the evidence is used. Inability to use relevant evidence makes the proof useless.

Solution: Select only evidences that suit the argument and write them in a logical manner.

Inconsistent position on a subject. Coherence is the key to an excellent essay. Inconsistency of arguments on the selected topic is quite confusing for the readers.

Solution: Stick to a single point all throughout the essay.

Having a vague and illogical structure. An unorganized structure results to inability of the essay to communicate the ideas clearly to its readers.

Solution: Create an outline to arrange the ideas.

Bad command of grammar and punctuation. Writing is governed by set of rules. Inaccurate grammar and punctuations destroy the credibility of the essay even if it is brilliantly conceptualized.

Solution: Proofread and allow others to edit the draft.

Incorrect reference of sources of information. Inappropriate attribution of the key sources also makes the essay less convincing. Citing the references gives the readers an assurance that the essay is thoroughly researched.

Solution: List all references properly.

Essay writing offers a lot of challenges for the writer. It is a complex yet rewarding task. The only issue is whether or not the writer is up to the challenge.


This is an individual project, to be completed on your own. It is considered dishonest either to read someone else’s solution or to provide a classmate with a copy of your work. Do not make the mistake of thinking that superficial changes in a program (such as altering comments, changing variable names, or interchanging statements) can be used to avoid detection. If you cannot do the work yourself, it is extremely unlikely that you can succeed in disguising someone else’s work. We are adamant that cheating in any form is not tolerated. Even the most trivial assignment is better not done than if you cheat to complete it.


  1. Primitive types
  2. Simple arithmetic operations
  3. Conditionals
  4. Loops
  5. Scanner class

Learning Objectives

  1. Problem solving
  2. Building interactive programs, that is, getting input from the user
  3. Using conditionals and loops to guide the program behavior


In this project you will simulate a game of BlackJack. You will implement the logic for a round; you will also provide the user with the option to play another round or exit the game.

Game Rules

Blackjack, also known as 21, is a very popular casino game between a player and a dealer. It is played with a deck of 52 cards. For this project, we will consider the simplest version of the game.
The goal of the game is for the player to obtain a hand of cards that beats the dealer in one of the following ways:

  1. Get 21 points on the first two cards, this is called a BlackJack. Note that if the dealer gets a BlackJack (21) on the first two cards, no matter what, the dealer wins.
  2. Reach a final score higher than the dealer without exceeding 21
  3. Let the dealer draw additional cards until her hand exceeds 21

At the beginning of the game, the player is dealt two cards and the dealer takes two cards. The value of their cards are added together to update each of their scores. Face cards (King, Queen and Jack) are counted as 10 points. Ace cards are counted as 11 and any other cards are counted as the numeric value shown on the card. If the player scores 21 on the first two cards, and the dealer doesn’t, he gets a BlackJack and immediately wins. If the dealer gets a BlackJack, the player loses, no matter the score.
After receiving their first two cards, if the game continues, the player has the option of getting additional cards, one by one, which is called a hit. If the player scores higher than 21 at any given point is called a bust and results in an immediate loss. Every time the player hits, the dealer must also hit, unless her total score is 17 or more. Once the dealer reaches or exceeds 17, she can’t take any more cards.
Once the player has decided he doesn’t want to hit anymore, the round has ended. The player wins by not busting and having a total higher than the dealer’s. The dealer loses by busting at the end of the round or having a lesser hand than the player who has not busted. If the player and dealer have the same total, this is called a push and it is considered a tie.

Discussion: From description to code

The rules of Blackjack were explained in the previous section. But now, how to go from the description of the rules to a Java program? As this is your very first project, we will give you some help.
From the Blackjack description, we know that we need to represent in Java two “objects”, that is:

  1. a card, that represents a single card in a 52 deck.
  2. the deck of 52 cards

Representing a card

Have a look at the class Card, provided to you.

 * Card
 * Represents a card in a traditional 52 deck
 * @author Maria Pacheco,
 * @version June 17, 2016
public class Card {
    private String suit;
    private String rank;
     * Creates a new card of the given suit and rank
     * @param suit of the card
     * @param rank of the card
    public Card(String suit, String rank) {
        this.suit = suit;
        this.rank = rank;
     * Gets the rank of the card
     * @return the rank of the card
    public String getRank() {
        return this.rank;
     * Gets the suit of the card
     * @return the suit of the card
    public String getSuit() {
        return this.suit;

The class has two fields (also called data members or instance variables) – you will learn later what the keyword private means -, representing the suit and the rank of a card. Both of them are of type String.
The class has a constructor public Card(String suit, String rank) that creates an instance of the card; note the two parameters of the constructor and how the constructor assigns the argument values to the two data members.
The Card class also provides two methods (so-called ‘getters’):

  • public String getRank()
  • public String getSuit()

that return the rank/suit of the card at hand, respectively.

Representing a deck of cards

Now have a look at the Deck class, also provided to you.
import java.util.Random;
 * Deck
 * Represents a traditional deck of 52 cards
 * @author Maria Pacheco,
 * @author Lorenzo Martino,
 * @version June 17, 2016
public class Deck {
    private Card [] deck;
    private String[] suits = {"Club", "Diamond", "Heart", "Spade"};
    private String[] ranks = {"Ace", "2", "3", "4", "5", "6", "7", "8", "9", "10", "Jack", "Queen", "King"};
     * Creates a new deck and initialize it
    public Deck() {
        deck = new Card [52];
     * Draw a card from the deck.
     * It selects the card randomly and "eliminates" it from the deck by setting to null
     * the corresponding entry in the Deck array.
     * @return the random card
    public Card drawCard() {
        Random rand = new Random();
        while (true) {
            int pos = rand.nextInt(deck.length);
            if (deck[pos] == null)
            else {
                Card ret = deck[pos];
                deck[pos] = null;
                return ret;
     * Initialize the deck to the 52 cards,
     * one of each rank for each suit
    public void deckInit() {
        int i = 0;
        for (String suit: suits) {
            for (String rank: ranks) {
                deck[i] = new Card(suit, rank);
                i += 1;

We need to represent all 52 cards in the Deck. To this end we used an array of 52 Cards. An array is a type of ordered container of elements of the same type. For example, an array of integers or an array of Strings (More on arrays on 6/27 and 6/28 lectures). Even if you were just introduced to the array, note how Java allows us to define an array that contains not only instances of Java primitive types (such as integer, double) or Java reference types (String), but also instances ofuser defined types, such as Card:
private Card [] deck;
Note also that the statement above only declares the variable deck, but it does not allocate any space for the elements of the array.
We also used two other fixed size arrays to represent the possible values of a card Suit and Rank:
private String[] suits = {“Club”, “Diamond”, “Heart”, “Spade”};
private String[] ranks = {“Ace”, “2”, “3”, “4”, “5”, “6”, “7”, “8”, “9”, “10”, “Jack”, “Queen”, “King”};
To complete our work we need to assign each of the possible 52 card instances to each element of the array deck. This is done by the Deck constructor (public Deck()) that:

  1. allocates the 52 entries of the array deck, and
  2. assigns a card to each of the entries above by calling the public void deckInit() method.

What are the real-life operation(s) that can be done with a deck of cards and that we want to simulate in our Java program? Usually a deck of cards is shuffled before the game, and the player (or the dealer) draws a card from the deck.
The result of shuffling a deck of cards and of drawing a card from the deck is a random one (that is, their result can not be predicted in advance). If you look at the Deck public Card drawCard() method, you can see how the random result is achieved by basically generating a random number in the range 0-51 (int pos = rand.nextInt(deck.length);) and returning the card at the corresponding index of deck array. Arrays indices start from 0. Note also how the selected entry in the deck array is set to null to simulate the fact that the extracted card is no longer available in a subsequent draw.

Simulating the BlackJack game

Now, let’s look at your job. We want to build the code that simulates a BlackJack round. This will be implemented in the BlackJack class.
First of all, we need a deck of cards and to keep track of the players’ and dealer’s score. We also need to know who won the round, or if a Push result occurred. To this end we need instance variables.
Look at the BlackJack class skeleton given to you.
public class BlackJack {
    private static final int PLAYER = 1;
    private static final int DEALER = 2;
    private static final int PUSH = 3;
    private static final String HIT_CARD_MESSAGE = "Draw another card? (Y/N): \n";
    public Deck deck;
    public Scanner scanner;
    public int winner;
    public int playerScore;
    public int dealerScore;
    public BlackJack() {
        deck = new Deck();
        // TO-DO: initialize other instance variables
     * Takes a card from the deck and returns its rank
     * @param name of the person taking the card
     * @return the rank of the card
    public String takeCard(String name) {
        Card card = deck.drawCard();
        printCard(card, name);
        return card.getRank();
     * Prints the given card
    public void printCard(Card card, String name) {
        System.out.println(name + ": " + card.getSuit() + " " + card.getRank());
    public int getValue(String rank) {
        // TO-DO
    public void initGame() {
        // TO-DO
    public boolean hitAnotherCard() {
        // TO-DO
    public void playerHit() {
        // TO-DO
    public void dealerHit() {
        // TO-DO
    public boolean initScoreCheck() {
        // TO-DO
    public void checkRoundWinner() {
       // TO-DO
    public void playRound() {
        // TO-DO
     * Main method to execute a round of BlackJack
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        BlackJack game = new BlackJack();

Now, are there operations that must be performed before actually playing the BlackJack round? Well, we need to create the deck of cards and initialize the player’s and dealer’s scores. Where we can do that? These operations can be done in the BlackJack constructor.
Now let’s try to figure out how to design and implement the simulation of a BlackJack round. If we look at the game (and round description), we can see that the very first thing that must be done in a round is to give the player and the dealer the first two cards.
Then additional things have to be done, for example, see if there is a blackjack, check if the player wants to hit, hitting cards and declare a winner. This task separation leads us to our design of the structure of the solution structure, basically by defining defining different methods for each task. For example:

  • do very first things (i.e. give the player and the dealer the first two cards).
  • check if the player or the dealer got a BlackJack.
  • ask the player if she wants to draw another card.
  • drawing cards
  • checking who is the round winner, or if the round ended in Push.
  • putting it all together: playing a round!

You may wonder if this structure is unique. The answer is no; a given problem can be solved in different ways, and hence one could devise a different structure (that is, a different decomposition into tasks) and, correspondingly, different methods.

Implementation Details

This project consists of three classes:

  1. Card: It represents a single card in a 52 deck. This class is given to you, do not alter it.
  2. Deck: It represents a deck of 52 cards. This class is given to you, do not alter it.
  3. BlackJack: It implements the logic of the game. You will implement the following methods. The description of these methods is given in the subsequent section.
    1. public BlackJack()
    2. public int getValue(String rank)
    3. public void initGame()
    4. public boolean hitAnotherCard()
    5. public void playerHit()
    6. public void dealerHit()
    7. public boolean initScoreCheck()
    8. public void checkRoundWinner()
    9. public void playRound()

BlackJack class

  • Instance variables: The class BlackJack keeps the status of the current game. To be able to do this, we will have the following instance variables. Instance variables are declared inside a class but outside methods and are accessible to all methods in the class. Initial values to this variables are assigned in theconstructor of the class, more details will be provided below.

DO NOT declare these instance variables to be private for this project. If you don’t know what that means, don’t worry about it for now.

Description Type Variable Name Observation
Deck of cards Deck deck You won’t handle it
Player score int playerScore
Dealer score int dealerScore
Game winner int winner
I/O Scanner Scanner scanner Used to read input.
  • String constants: In a method of this class, you are required to print a specific message to the standard output. In order to follow a common convention throughout this project and to facilitate auto-grading, you MUST use the HIT_CARD_MESSAGE string constant. It is provided in the skeleton, please do not alter it.
  • Int constants: In some methods of this class, you are required to update the winner variable. PLAYER, DEALER and PUSH are constants used for this, you MUST use them, as they will be used for testing purposes.
  • Scanner: For testing purposes, we need the Scanner class to be an instance variable. Use it and do not re-declare it.
    // constant for printing messages
    private static final String HIT_CARD_MESSAGE = "Hit another card? (Y/N): \n";
    // constants to update the winner variable
    private static final int PLAYER = 1;
    private static final int DEALER = 2;
    private static final int PUSH = 3;
To print the HIT_CARD_MESSAGE String, use System.out.printf()DO NOT use System.out.println() even if no formatting is needed. It will add an extra newline. We need this for testing purposes.
Example: System.out.printf(HIT_CARD_MESSAGE);
If you want to print messages in other methods, you may use System.out.println().
  • public BlackJack(): This method has the same name as that of the class and is called a constructor. It creates an object instance of the class andinitializes the instance variables of the newly created object. The constructor, being a method, can have input parameters. In our case it doesn’t have any. Think about what the value of our instance variables (playerScore and dealerScore) should be when a game is created. Remember to initialize the scanner.
public BlackJack() {
     this.deck = new Deck();
     // TO-DO: initialize other instance variables

Playing one round is quite complex, so let’s create a set of auxiliary methods:

  • public int getValue(String rank): This method returns the value of the card. The value of a card depends solely on its rank. Face cards (King, Queen and Jack) are counted as 10 points. Ace cards are counted as 11 and any other cards (2, 3, …) are counted as the numeric value shown on the card. Take a look at the provided class Card for the list of possible ranks.
  • public void initGame(): In this method, the player and dealer take two cards each and their scores are updated.

Use the method public String takeCard(String name) provided in the BlackJack class to draw the cards. This method returns the rank of the card as aString. It receives a name as an input, for example takeCard(“Player”) When the player draws a card or takeCard(“Dealer”) when the dealer draws a card, this method will print the name and the card to the output.

  • public boolean hitAnotherCard(): This method prompts the player to ask if she wants to draw another card. This is done using the string constantHIT_CARD_MESSAGE. When this method is called, the following message should be displayed
 Hit another card? (Y/N):

This method returns true if the player enters Y, or false if the player enters N. If the player enters something else then the method prompts again. It will continue prompting until a valid option is entered.

  • public void playerHit(): In this method the player takes one card and his score is updated.
  • public void dealerHit(): In this method the dealer takes one card and his score is updated, only if his score allows him to keep drawing cards. Take a look at the game rules.
  • public boolean initScoreCheck(): This method is called after each player takes two cards. It checks if the player or the dealer have a BlackJack and, if either of them does, returns true. It returns false otherwise. Additionally, this method must update the winner in case of a BlackJack.
  • public void checkRoundWinner(): This method is called at the end of the round. It checks the scores and updates the winner accordingly. The three possible scenarios are: the dealer wins, the player wins or there is a push.
  • public void playRound(): This method implements the logic of one round of the game. It uses the auxiliary methods (i.e., the other methods that you have written). You may use additional print statements to guide your understanding and make the execution of the game more natural. Please refer to the game rules and the execution examples provided below for details.

The BlackJack class contains a main method that you can use to run and test your program.

Output Examples

Example 0: Pushing the game

Starting the round...
Player: Heart 7
Player: Spade Queen
Player score: 17
Dealer: Club Ace
Dealer: Diamond 9
Dealer score: 20
Draw another card? (Y/N):
Player: Heart 3
Player score after card: 20
Draw another card? (Y/N):
Player score: 20, Dealer score: 20

Example 1: Busting the game

Starting the round...
Player: Heart Queen
Player: Heart 6
Player score: 16
Dealer: Heart 4
Dealer: Spade Queen
Dealer score: 14
Draw another card? (Y/N):
Player: Spade 8
Player score after card: 24
PLAYER BUST! End of the round
Player score: 24, Dealer score: 14

Example 2: Winning the game

Starting the round...
Player: Spade Jack
Player: Diamond Queen
Player score: 20
Dealer: Heart 8
Dealer: Diamond Ace
Dealer score: 19
Draw another card? (Y/N):
Player score: 20, Dealer score: 19

Example 3: Dealer loses by busting

Starting the round...
Player: Spade 3
Player: Club 5
Player score: 8
Dealer: Heart 4
Dealer: Heart Ace
Dealer score: 15
Draw another card? (Y/N):
Player: Spade 6
Player score after card: 14
Dealer: Spade Queen
Dealer score after card: 25
Draw another card? (Y/N):
Player score: 14, Dealer score: 25

Example 4: Losing the game

Starting the round...
Player: Diamond 3
Player: Diamond 10
Player score: 13
Dealer: Heart King
Dealer: Club 6
Dealer score: 16
Draw another card? (Y/N):
Player score: 13, Dealer score: 16

Example 5: Player BlackJack!

Starting the round...
Player: Diamond Ace
Player: Club 10
Player score: 21
Dealer: Diamond 5
Dealer: Club 7
Dealer score: 12
Player score: 21, Dealer score: 12

Example 5: Dealer BlackJack

Starting the round...
Player: Heart 8
Player: Diamond King
Player score: 18
Dealer: Heart Ace
Dealer: Diamond Jack
Dealer score: 21
Player score: 18, Dealer score: 21

Test cases

Your project will be graded by running a certain number of test cases on the code you submitted. The test cases are run automatically by Vocareum whenever you make a submission.
Additionally, we provide a set of test cases for you to run as you develop your problem: Project01StudentTest. Use this test cases before making any attempts to submit to Vocareum.
This section provides you some explanations about the test cases and the messages they can produce.
The main purpose of a test case is to verify that the result(s) produced by the invocation of a certain method is/are the expected one(s).
Basically, for each method/constructor that you were asked to implement, we defined a certain number of test cases. A test case is a method that invokes the method to be tested and checks that it produces the expected result. The name of the test case method provides hints as to the method tested. The message of each test case follows the convention “Class::method message”. This is done to provide detailed information as to where is the test case failing.


BlackJack class: constructor test cases

The test case(s) check that the BlackJack constructor initialized the BlackJack fields properly. Properly means: according to the specification given in this handout. So you should ask yourself:

  1. which are the BlackJack fields?
  2. how should they be initialized by the constructor?

Two test cases used: testConstructorPlayerScore() and testConstructorDealerScore()

BlackJack class: getValue method test cases

Let’s recall the specification of the getValue method:

  • public int getValue(String rank): This method returns the value of the card. The value of a card depends solely on its rank. Face cards (King, Queen and Jack) are counted as 10 points. Ace cards are counted as 11 and any other cards (2, 3, …) are counted as the numeric value shown on the card. Take a look at the provided class Card for the list of possible ranks.

As the method has an input argument (the rank of a card), testing that it works properly means testing that for each possible value of the argument (that is, each possible card rank), it returns the expected value. The value of a card rank was also defined in the specifications:
“…Face cards (King, Queen and Jack) are counted as 10 points. Ace cards are counted as 11 and any other cards are counted as the numeric value shown on the card.”
As there are 13 possible different values for the card rank, we defined a corresponding number of test cases methods. They are those whose name begins with testGetValue.


  1. Create a new project in IntelliJ (you can name it project01).
  2. Download the CardDeck and BlackJack classes and copy/move them to your IntelliJ project.
  3. Write the code of incomplete methods in the BlackJack class.
  4. Make sure to comply with coding standards

Grading Rubric

  • 05% – Constructor: Blackjack()
  • 10% – getValue
  • 05% – initGame
  • 20% – hitAnotherCard
  • 05% – playerHit
  • 05% – dealerHit
  • 10% – initScoreCheck
  • 10% – checkRoundWinner
  • 25% – playRound
  • 05% – Coding Style

Submission Instructions

  • Before submitting test your code extensively by playing the game manually and through the test cases made available to you. Do that before uploading to Vocareum. Vocareum will ONLY provide you suggestions (hints) on where you could have possibly gone wrong. Don’t expect Vocareum to pinpoint your mistakes.
  • If you used IntelliJ IDE, make sure that your project doesn’t have a package name. To avoid this, set the package name to default while creating the project.
  • Submit the files: BlackJack,java,, and to Vocareum.
    • You can submit to Vocareum at most 20 times.
    • The score of your project will be the score of your last submission.

Extra Credit: Optional

In the traditional BlackJack game, the Ace card value can be counted as either 1 or 11. For a player, this is easily implemented as we only need to prompt a question to the user to ask how he wants to add his Ace cards. However, in the case of the dealer, the decision has to be made automatically.
In a different module, implement a 1 or 11 version of BlackJack, for both the player and the dealer. Think of a smart way to have the dealer automatically choose the value of his Aces. You have the freedom to modify the methods, add extra methods, print statements, etc, anything you deem helpful.

Is it Ethical and Legal to Buy Papers and Essays?

I believe it is ethical to use the   custom   essay  writing services. You do not still anything, you pay enough fair price for the service you use, you simply delegate the part of your work and can concentrate on what really matters to you. You are free to get an outside help and delegate your writing assignments to professional writers same as if you would get your watches fixed or car repaired by third party experts.

During my study I had several courses that I considered to be absolutely useless, I loved my major and make all writing assignments myself, but I hated Compositions, where you need to write some blah-blah-blah about your personal experiences and make 5 revisions polishing your work. I always ordered papers in such cases and haven’t experienced any ethical problems with that. Instead of distressing myself I could concentrate on what I really liked.

I did some research to find out is it legal to buy essays, term papers, etc. I personally have never experienced any legal problems with using such services. I did have problems when some “trustful”  custom   essay  writing services provided me with plagiarized papers, but it never caused any legal problems. From what I have researched I found that it can be a problem for companies that provide the service, especially for paper mills. Some states have statutes against the sale of a “term paper, essay, report, thesis or dissertation” to students. But you, as a student, cannot be detected if you use trustful  custom   essay  writing service and you will not have any legal problems, they keep all information private.

Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and project schedule in a Gantt format for the E-Mail Upgrade Project described in the scenario.

Develop a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and project schedule in a Gantt format for the E-Mail Upgrade Project described in the scenario.The WBS and resultant schedule should contain the following high-level activities:

    • 1.0 Evaluate User & System Requirements
    • 2.0 Evaluate ODHS Network Suitability
    • 3.0 Conduct E-mail System Selection
    • 4.0 Upgrade ODHS Network & Hardware
    • 5.0 Develop E-mail Training
    • 6.0 Deploy E-mail System

Each of the six WBS elements should be decomposed into two or more activities; additionally, three of these six elements should be decomposed into a third level consisting of at least two more activities. Thus, there should be six high level WBS elements, twelve or more second level activities (two per the six elements), and six third level activities. Use the format described above to define the activities (action verb followed by subject, such as Deploy E-mail System).
The Gantt chart should be developed based on the WBS (all activities should be detailed on the Gantt chart). The Gantt chart should reflect the proper dependencies of each of the activities (for example, you can’t have “Deploy E-mail System” before “Evaluate User Requirements”). For activity duration, provide a reasonable estimate of the time you expect each activity to take; while students are not expected to provide accurate durations, durations should be reasonably defensible and logical. For formatting ease, high level activities should be left justified while second and third level activities should be indented below their parent activities.
As a newly assigned project manager for the Ohio Department of Human Services, you are excited about working with technology projects throughout the state. The Ohio Department of Human Services’ (ODHS) Office of Network Support (ONS) is responsible for managing the network and software applications for over 15,000 state and county agency employees throughout Ohio’s 88 counties. The office coordinates software upgrades and network modifications from an operations center located in the capital, Columbus, with assistance from local technology employees in each of the county seats.
The position is not without its challenges, however. The network infrastructure throughout the state ranges from high quality, high-bandwidth connections in major population centers to older, partially working connections in the poorer, more regional counties. Additionally, budget and resources are a constant issue, with a high turnover rate among existing employees and an emphasis on outsourcing the labor force to several vendors to accomplish the myriad of support and project tasks. Your initial assignment is to examine the viability and costs associated with upgrading the existing e-mail, with the objective of developing the implementation project for the organization. ODHS had adopted the e-mail software called Globalupgrades (a Worldviewupgrades product) as its e-mail standard in 1994 and executed minor upgrades since then. However, the latest version of Globalupgrades, Version 9.0, contains significant enhancements desired by the ODHS user base, and the existing Version 7.0’s support will be phased out in the next year by Worldviewupgrades. The Worldviewupgrades sales representatives have been offering discounts for a Version 9.0 license, but the costs are approximately 20% more than previous licenses. Additionally, several other e-mail product vendors are lobbying state officials for business, some of them offering significant incentives. Generally, these products are viewed as less robust than Globalupgrades, but there are some segments of the user community that are supportive of these other options.
You are reviewing the existing documentation on the current state of the e-mail system, including license agreements and the WorldviewupgradesGlobalupgrades 9.0 preliminary proposal. You are also examining the staffing structure and developing ideas on how to accomplish this task. In two weeks, you will need to brief the ONS Director on your planned approach to completing this effort.